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Psychiatry Investigation

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전체선택 Endnote Refworks
Objective The aims of this study were to evaluate the psychometric properties of Persian translation of the Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0 (YFAS 2.0) as a widely accepted questionnaire for the first time and to establish a cut off score for Food Craving Questionnaire-Trait-reduced (FCQ-T-r). Methods In this cross-sectional study, 330 visitors of family physician clinics in Shiraz, a city located in south of Iran, were selected. The English version of YFAS 2.0 was translated into Persian and used in this study as well as the Persian version of FCQ-T-r. Results Confirmatory factor analysis of YFAS-2 confirmed one dimensional structure and factor loading in all eleven symptoms was above 0.4. Internal consistency for eleven symptoms was 0.813. Prevalence of food addiction in participants was 6.7% (22 participants). BMI and FCQ-T-r questionnaire score both were positively correlated with the number of food addiction symptoms but age was negatively correlated with the number of the symptoms. The ROC curve analysis showed the best suggested cut-off point for FCQ-T-r questionnaire to detect food addiction was 32.5. Conclusion The present study confirmed validity and reliability of Persian version of YFAS-2. It is suggested that food addiction occurs in different level of food craving behavior in different food cultures or genetics.
The Mediating Effect of Psychological Distress on the Association between BDNF, 5-HTTLPR, and Tinnitus Severity
The Mediating Effect of Psychological Distress on the Association between BDNF, 5-HTTLPR, and Tinnitus Severity
Jo-Eun Jeong,Sekye Jeon,Jae Sang Han,Eun Young Cho,Kyung Sue Hong,Shi Nae Park,Jung Jin Kim
Psychiatry Investigation 제18권 제3호/ 2021
187-195 (9 pages)
의약학>정신과학
초록보기
Objective To investigate the association between genetic polymorphisms of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and tinnitus, and the mediating effects of psychological distress on this association. Methods Eighty-six patients experiencing tinnitus and 252 controls were recruited. The Tinnitus Handicap Inventory was used to assess the severity of tinnitus and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory-II (BAI-II), and the Korean version of the Brief Encounter Psychosocial Instrument (BEPSI-K) were used to assess psychological distress. We compared the association of BDNF rs6265 (Val66Met) and 5-HTTLPR variants in the two groups. The mediating effects of BDI-II, BAI-II, and BEPSI-K were examined using multiple regression analysis and validated by the Sobel test and bootstrapping. Results No significant differences were found between the groups regarding BDNF Val66Met and 5-HTTLPR, but the 5-HTTLPR variants trended toward association. Depressive symptoms appeared to act as a mediator on the relationship within the 5-HTTLPR s/s genotype and the severity of tinnitus. Conclusion Our findings provide a speculative idea on the association between the serotonergic system and tinnitus and suggest that depressive symptoms act as a mediator in tinnitus. Therefore, screening for depressive symptoms in patients with tinnitus is essential and intervention for depressive symptoms may help alleviate the severity of tinnitus.
Validating the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised in the Korean Population
Validating the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised in the Korean Population
Miae Oh,Da-Yea Song,Guiyoung Bong,Nan-He Yoon,So Yoon Kim,Joo-Hyun Kim,Jongmyeong Kim,Hee Jeong Yoo
Psychiatry Investigation 제18권 제3호/ 2021
196-208 (13 pages)
의약학>정신과학
초록보기
Objective This study aimed to examine the validity of the Korean version of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (K-ADI-R) and determine its efficacy in identifying individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods Data were pooled from several past and ongoing studies as well as clinical records acquired at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital from 2008 to 2017. The K-ADI-R were administered and scored by trained research reliable examiners. Measurements to investigate the validity of the K-ADI-R was through sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV), negative predictive values (NPV), and Cohen’s kappa. Results A total of 1,271 (age 88.9±62.42 months, male=927) participants were included. The K-ADI-R yielded strong psychometric properties with high sensitivity (86.06–99.27%), specificity (84.75–99.55%), PPV (92.33–99.72%), and NPV (79.43–98.64%). There were significant differences in item scores across the K-ADI-R diagnostic algorithm regardless of age and sex (p<0.001). Agreement between the K-ADI-R and other ASD related measurements ranged between levels of good to excellent. Conclusion Despite language or cultural boundaries, the K-ADI-R demonstrated high levels of sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV within a wide range of participants; hence, suggesting promising usage as a valuable diagnostic instrument for individuals with ASD.
Objective Cognitive functions have been shown to become impaired due to alcoholism. Recently, neuroinflammation gained attention for playing a role in the neurotoxic effect of alcohol. However, there is limited data on the relationship between alcohol and cognitive function, based on the mechanism of inflammation. This study examined whether the interaction between alcohol use and pro-inflammatory biomarkers is related to cognitive function in Korean male firefighters. Methods A total of 474 firefighters were assessed for alcohol-related problems using CAGE, cognitive functions, and pro-inflammatory biomarkers (CRP, IL-6, TNF-α). Sequential multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine if inflammatory markers moderate the relationship between alcohol use and cognitive function. Results Only a decreased attentional function was associated with the interaction of alcohol use and inflammatory markers, after controlling for age, sex, body mass index, lipid profiles, smoking, depression, fatigue, self-reported hypertension, diabetes, and musculoskeletal problems. Conclusion This study revealed that the interaction between alcohol use and inflammation is related to attentional function in Korean male firefighters. Additionally, this cross-sectional study suggests that diminishing attention, related to alcohol use, may be based on the mechanism of inflammation.
Objective Temperament, positive resources, childhood trauma, and other clinical comorbid symptoms are related to depressive symptom severity. Here, we used network analysis to examine the interrelations between these clinical factors in patients with depressive disorders. Methods Patients with depressive disorders (n=454) completed self-report questionnaires evaluating clinical symptoms, childhood trauma, temperament, and positive resources. To identify network pattern and the most central aspect, we performed network analysis and centrality analyses. First, we analyzed the network pattern in total participants. Second, we established two groups of those with severe depressive symptoms and those with mild depressive symptoms and compared their network patterns. Results Deficient optimism and depression were the central factors in the network of total participants. In the group with severe depressive symptoms, lack of social support and childhood emotional trauma showed high centrality. Deficient social support and other positive resources played central roles in the group with mild depressive symptoms. Conclusion Network pattern of psychological factors was different between those with mild or severe depression. Lack of positive resources is an important factor in psychological processes in both mild and severe depression. However, childhood emotional trauma may play a relatively important role in patients with severe depressive symptoms.
Objective North Korean refugee youths are at higher risk of developing a wide array of psychosocial sequelae, including increased impulsivity and problematic internet use. We aimed to identify reciprocal temporal relationships by performing autoregressive cross-lagged modeling and to examine how these relations differ by gender and adverse childhood experience. Methods We used the follow-up data of 108 North Korean refugee youths in South Korea over a 1-year period. The Barratt Impulsivity Scale-Brief and Young’s Internet Addiction Test were used to assess impulsivity and problematic internet use, respectively. Results Autoregressive effects were significant across all groups, indicating that impulsivity and problematic internet use were stable across time; however, prospective prediction of problematic internet use from impulsivity was not significant across all groups. Problematic internet use at baseline positively predicted impulsivity at after 1 year of follow up in only males and individuals with adverse childhood experience. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the negative effect of problematic internet use (i.e., increased impulsivity) among North Korean refugee youths may be more profound in males and those with adverse childhood experience. We present possible explanations for these findings and discuss the implications for targeted interventions.
Objective This study aimed to investigate treatment effects of combination therapy of memantine and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AchEIs) compared with AchEIs alone on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in patients with moderate Alzheimer’s dementia (AD). Methods This was a 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 148 patients with moderate AD participated in this study. Mini-Mental State Examination, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Clinician’s Interview-Based Impression of Change plus caregiver input, Gottfries–Bråne–Steen Scale, and Zarit Burden Interview were used as assessment scales. Results There were no significant differences in age, sex, or education between AChEIs alone and combination groups. The combination group showed significantly more improvement of NPI-disinhibition score (0.76±2.15) than the AChEIs alone group (-0.14±1.71) after 12 weeks. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the combination therapy of memantine and AchEIs might be a beneficial option for reducing disinhibition symptoms of patients with moderate AD compared with AchEIs alone. We believe that clinicians need to consider additional memantine treatment when patients with moderate AD complain disinhibition symptom. A larger clinical trial is needed to further determine the efficacy and advantages of such combination therapy of memantine and AchEIs for treating BPSD of patients with moderate AD.
Objective This study investigated the types of daily life stressors associated with social media use in adolescents with problematic Internet/ smartphone use in a city in Korea. Methods Data from 2,997 Internet and smartphone users who participated in a survey about the actual use of smart digital media in Korea were included. The measurement tools included questionnaires on Internet and smartphone usage patterns and types of daily life stressors as well as the Internet Gaming Use-Elicited Symptom Screen and a smartphone addiction scale. The subjects were divided into a problematic Internet/smartphone use group and a control group. We compared the types of daily life stressors associated with social media use for each group. Results All types of daily life stressors were more prevalent in the problematic Internet use group than in the control group. In the problematic Internet/smartphone use group, the types of daily life stressors that were positively associated with social media use were sibling rivalry and physical health. In the control group, social media use was negatively associated with daily life stressors related to appearance and heterosexual relationships. Conclusion There is a need to provide personalized stress management related to social media use for adolescents with problematic Internet/ smartphone use.
Objective Pharmacotherapy is established as an effective method for reducing symptoms of panic disorder (PD). However, about 20– 40% of PD patients are treatment-resistant. Predictors of pharmacotherapy outcomes for PD patients are needed. Methods This study included 152 PD patients to measure the clinical severities of PD symptoms and used the Early Trauma Inventory (ETI) to measure early trauma. Treatment response was defined as a 40% reduction in the total Panic Disorder Severity Scale score from baseline. We measured the treatment responses at 8 weeks and 6 months. Binary logistic regression was used to predict treatment response after controlling for confounding variables. Results Early sexual trauma alone was associated with poor treatment response at 8 weeks. However, at 6 months, the total ETI score was associated with an unfavorable treatment response. Conclusion Therefore, our study suggests that clinicians need to be aware of a history of early trauma to optimize treatment outcomes for PD patients.
State and Trait Anxiety of Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders
State and Trait Anxiety of Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders
So Yoon Kim,Young Ah Kim,Da-Yea Song,Guiyoung Bong,Jong-myeong Kim,Joo Hyun Kim,Hee Jeong Yoo
Psychiatry Investigation 제18권 제3호/ 2021
257-266 (10 pages)
의약학>정신과학
초록보기
Objective This study examined how state and trait anxiety of adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with their demographic characteristics, repetitive and restricted behaviors (RRBs), and internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors. Methods A total of 96 participants with ASD (mean age=14.30 years; 91 males) completed a battery of tests including the State/Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and a cognitive test measuring intelligence quotient (IQ). Participants’ parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Pearson’s correlations among age, IQ, two subscales of the STAI (i.e., STAIS and STAIT, measuring self-reported state and trait anxiety, respectively), and the Anxiety subscale of CBCL (i.e., CBCL-Anxiety, measuring parent-reported trait anxiety) were computed. Subsequently, Pearson’s correlations were computed among the three anxiety measures, RRBs, and problem behaviors, while controlling for participants’ age and IQ. Results The STAIS and CBCL-Anxiety were both significantly correlated with higher age, sensory sensitivity, depressive symptoms, somatic complaints, and aggressive behaviors. All three anxiety variables were significantly and positively correlated with total SRS RRB scores. Additionally, the STAIS and STAIT were significantly associated with more severe Compulsion/Adherence behaviors, and the CBCL-Anxiety was also significantly associated with more severe Rule-breaking Behaviors. Conclusion Self-reported state anxiety showed association patterns similar to those of parent-reported trait anxiety. Future studies investigating the precise operationalization of different anxiety instruments are needed to accurately measure the anxiety of adolescents with ASD.
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