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1. 한국환경보건학회지

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한국환경보건학회
한국환경보건학회지 제47권 제5호/ 2021
1-2 (2 pages)
공학>환경공학
표지
표지
한국환경보건학회
한국환경보건학회지 제47권 제5호/ 2021
1-1 (1 pages)
공학>환경공학
This paper discussed environmental health policies for the past and coming decade by reviewing the First Comprehensive Environmental Health Plan (2011~2020) and introducing the Second Comprehensive Environmental Health Plan (2021~2030). The major achievement of the First Comprehensive Environmental Health Plan was the establishment of receptor-oriented environmental health policies. However, the main limitations were insufficient policy support for relief and/or recovery from environmental pollution damage and low public awareness of environmental health policies. The Second Comprehensive Environmental Health Plan presents the following major policy tasks: establish an omnidirectional environment health investigation and monitoring system, provide customized environmental health services, improve the environmental health damage relief and recovery system, and promote regional environmental health policies. The Second Plan has a clear distinction from the First Plan in that it expands the field of environmental health from the prevention and management of environmental risk factors to proactive damage response and recovery, which will effectively contribute to alleviating the burden of environmental disease.
수용체 모델(PMF)를 이용한 서울시 대기 중 VOCs의 배출원에 따른 위해성평가
수용체 모델(PMF)를 이용한 서울시 대기 중 VOCs의 배출원에 따른 위해성평가
권승미(Seung-Mi Kwon),최유리(Yu-Ri Choi),박명규(Myoung-Kyu Park),이호준(Ho-Joon Lee),김광래(Gwang-Rae Kim),유승성(Seung-Sung Yoo),조석주(Seog-Ju Cho),신진호(Jin-Ho Shin),신용승(Yong-Seung Shin),이철민(Cheolmin Lee)
한국환경보건학회지 제47권 제5호/ 2021
384-397 (14 pages)
공학>환경공학
초록보기
Background: With volatile organic compounds (VOCs) containing aromatic and halogenated hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, and xylene that can adversely affect the respiratory and cardiovascular systems when a certain concentration is reached, it is important to accurately evaluate the source and the corresponding health risk effects. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to provide scientific evidence for the city of Seoul’s VOC reduction measures by confirming the risk of each VOC emission source. Methods: In 2020, 56 VOCs were measured and analyzed at one-hour intervals using an online flame ionization detector system (GC-FID) at two measuring stations in Seoul (Gangseo: GS, Bukhansan: BHS). The dominant emission source was identified using the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model, and health risk assessment was performed on the main components of VOCs related to the emission source. Results: Gasoline vapor and vehicle combustion gas are the main sources of emissions in GS, a residential area in the city center, and the main sources are solvent usage and aged VOCs in BHS, a greenbelt area. The risk index ranged from 0.01 to 0.02, which is lower than the standard of 1 for both GS and BHS, and was an acceptable level of 5.71×10-7 to 2.58×10-6 for carcinogenic risk. Conclusions: In order to reduce the level of carcinogenic risk to an acceptable safe level, it is necessary to improve and reduce the emission sources of vehicle combustion and solvent usage, and eco-car policies are judged to contribute to the reduction of combustion gas as well as providing a response to climate change.
다중이용시설별 실내공기 오염물질 농도분포 및 기준치 이상 값의 구성비 조사
다중이용시설별 실내공기 오염물질 농도분포 및 기준치 이상 값의 구성비 조사
전정인(Jeong-In Joen),이혜원(Hye-Won Lee),최현진(Hyun-Jin Choi),전형진(Hyung-Jin Jeon),이철민(Cheolmin Lee)
한국환경보건학회지 제47권 제5호/ 2021
398-409 (12 pages)
공학>환경공학
초록보기
Background: The types and effects of hazardous pollutants in indoor air may vary depending on the characteristics of the sources and pollutants caused by physical and chemical properties of buildings, the influence of outdoor air, and the exposure and use characteristics of residents. Objectives: This study was conducted to provide basic data on the establish of indoor air quality management for different classes of public-use facilities by presenting the characteristics of concentration distribution of hazardous pollutants by different public-use facilities and the status of the excess proportion of exceeding standards. Methods: This study analyzed self-measurement data from public-use facilities taken from 2017 to 2019 A total of 133,525 facilities were surveyed. A total of 10 types of pollutants that have maintenance and recommended standards stipulated in the Indoor Air Quality Control Act from the Ministry of Environment were investigated. The excess proportion and the substances exceeding the criteria for each type of public-use facilities for these pollutants were investigated. Results: As a result of the analysis of the proportion of exceeding the standard for each type of public-use facility, the facilities with the highest excess proportion of the standards for each hazardous pollutant were: PM₁₀ in railway stations (8.93%), PM2.5 in daycare centers (7.36%), CO2 in bus terminals (2.37%), HCHO in postpartum care centers (4.11%), total airborne bacteria in daycare centers (0.69%), CO in museums (0.1%), NO₂ in postpartum care centers (1.15%), Rn in museums (0.78%), total volatile organic compounds in postpartum care centers (7.20%) and mold in daycare centers (1.44%). Conclusions: Although uncertainty may arise because this study is a result of self-measurement, it is considered that this study has significance for providing basic data on the establishment in the future of indoor air quality management measures customized for each type of public-use facility.
IoT 기반 지하역사 내 바이오필터시스템 설치에 따른 실내공기질 변화 및 영향 요인 분석
IoT 기반 지하역사 내 바이오필터시스템 설치에 따른 실내공기질 변화 및 영향 요인 분석
양호형(Ho-Hyeong Yang),김형주(Hyung-Joo Kim),방성원(Sung-Won Bang),조흔우(Heun-Woo Cho),김호현(Ho-Hyun Kim)
한국환경보건학회지 제47권 제5호/ 2021
410-424 (15 pages)
공학>환경공학
초록보기
Background: Subway stations have the characteristics of being located underground and are a representative public-use facility used by an unspecified number of people. As concerns about indoor air quality (IAQ) increase, various management measures are being implemented. However, there are few systematic studies and cases of long-term continuous measurement of underground station air quality. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to analyze changes and factors influencing IAQ in subway stations through real-time continuous long-term measurement using IoT-based IAQ sensing equipment, and to evaluate the IAQ improvement effect of a bio-filter system. Methods: The IAQ of a subway station in Seoul was measured using IoT-based sensing equipment. A biofilter system was installed after collecting the background concentrations for about five months. Based on the data collected over about 21 months, changes in indoor air quality and influencing factors were analyzed and the reduction effect of the bio-filter system was evaluated. Results: As a result of the analysis, PM10, PM2.5, and CO2 increased during rush hour according to the change in the number of passengers, and PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were high when a PM warning/watch was issued. There was an effect of improving IAQ with the installation of the bio-filter system. The reduction rate of a new-bio-filter system with improved efficiency was higher than that of the existing bio-filter system. Factors affecting PM2.5 in the subway station were the outdoor PM2.5, platform PM2.5, and the number of passengers. Conclusions: The IAQ in a subway station is affected by passengers, ventilation through the air supply and exhaust, and the spread of particulate matter generated by train operation. Based on these results, it is expected that IAQ can be efficiently improved if a bio-filter system with improved efficiency is developed in consideration of the factors affecting IAQ and proper placement.
건축자재 라돈 방출률 평가를 통한 공동주택 내 라돈 기여율 평가
건축자재 라돈 방출률 평가를 통한 공동주택 내 라돈 기여율 평가
홍형진(Hyungjin Hong),최지원(Jiwon Choi),윤성원(Sungwon Yoon),김희천(Heechun Kim),이철민(Cheolmin Lee)
한국환경보건학회지 제47권 제5호/ 2021
425-431 (7 pages)
공학>환경공학
초록보기
Background: This study evaluated the radon contribution rate through an evaluation of the exhalation rate of radon from building materials. Objectives: This study compared and evaluated the computation of the radon contribution rate based on each different exhalation rate in a building. Methods: The six demonstration houses that are the subject of this study are wall structures or Rahmen structures, and include demonstration houses similar to general residential environments and non-finishing houses with some walls exposed. Results: The highest exhalation rate was found at 62.98 Bq/㎡ per day from the non-finishing floor, and the second highest exhalation rate was from stone materials at 58.76 Bq/㎡ per day. Based on this result, investigating the contribution rate of building materials derived from building materials among indoor radon concentrations, house three was the highest at 81.7%, and house one was confirmed to be 33.96%. Conclusions: It can be judged that the effect of exposed concrete and stone is high, and that it is possible to reduce radon emitted from indoor building structures by controlling the indoor materials.
Background: The European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals’ Targeted Risk Assessment (ECETOC TRA) tool has been recognized by EU REACH as a preferred approach for calculating worker health risks from chemicals. Objectives: The applicability of the ECETOC TRA to occupational exposure estimation from industrial uses of methanol was studied by inputting surveyed and varied parameters for TRA estimation as well as through comparison with measured data. Methods: Information on uses of methanol was collected from seven working environment monitoring reports along with the measured exposure data. Input parameters for TRA estimation such as operating conditions (OCs), risk management measures (RMMs) and process categories (PROCs) were surveyed. To compare with measured exposures, parameters from the surveyed conditions of ventilation but no use of respiratory protection were applied. Results: PROCs 4, 5, 8a, 10, and 15 were assigned to ten uses of methanol. The uses include as a solvent for manufacturing sun cream, surfactants, dyestuffs, films and adhesives. Methanol was also used as a component in a release agent, hardening media and mold wash for cast products as well as a component of hard-coating solution and a viscosity-controlling agent for manufacturing glass lenses. PROC 8a and PROC 10 of a cast product manufacturer without LEV (local exhaust ventilation) and general ventilation as well as no respiratory protection resulted in the highest exposure to methanol. Assuming the identical worst OCs and RMMs for all uses, exposures from PROC 5, 8a, and 10 were the same and the highest followed by PROC 4 and 15. The estimation resulted in higher exposures in nine uses except one use where measured exposure approximated exposures without RMMs. Conclusions: The role of ECETOC TRA as a conservative exposure assessment tool was confirmed by comparison with measured data. Moreover, it can guide which RMMs should be applied for the safe use of methanol.
Background: Plastic particles less than 5 mm in diameter (microplastics) are well-known for causing various toxicities such as lung inflammation, oxidative stress, genotoxicity, and reproductive toxicity. As microplastics become smaller, they can move across cell membranes, the placenta, and the blood-brain barrier. Objectives: We evaluated the toxicities of polyethylene microplastics (PE-PMs) in dams and neonates through intragastric intubation of pregnant ICR mice. Methods: Low concentrations (0.01 mg/mouse/day) and high concentrations (0.1 mg/mouse/day) of polyethylene microplastics were administered from the ninth day of pregnancy to postnatal day seven. The control group was administered with distilled water. On the day of sacrifice, the weight of dams and neonates and the organ weight of neonates was measured. Further, acetylcholinesterase levels and glutathione peroxidase levels were evaluated by using a blood sample obtained on the sacrifice day. Results: No significant difference in the number of neonates was found, but the body weight gain of dams was seen to be lower in the low-dose group. On the other hand, we observed a consecutively declining trend in the weight gain and organ weight of neonates among the high-, control, and low-dose groups. Meanwhile, the serum acetylcholinesterase and glutathione peroxidase level were higher in the low-dose group compared to the control group. Further, the dose-dependent accumulation of microplastics in the organs of neonates revealed the transport of plastic particles from dams to their offspring. Conclusions: Although the exact mechanism of toxicity caused by microplastics could not be confirmed, it was validated that exposure to microplastics during pregnancy and lactation causes its migration between generations and accumulation throughout the body. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the systemic toxicity of microplastics and assessment of co-morbidities such as second-generation toxicity, neurotoxicity, and depression following long-term exposure.
수산생물 중 유해물질의 인체 노출 및 위해평가 시스템 개발
수산생물 중 유해물질의 인체 노출 및 위해평가 시스템 개발
이재원(Jaewon Lee),이승우(Seungwoo Lee),최민규(Minkyu Choi),이헌주(Hunjoo Lee)
한국환경보건학회지 제47권 제5호/ 2021
454-461 (8 pages)
공학>환경공학
초록보기
Background: Fish and fishery products (FFPs) unintentionally contaminated with various environmental pollutants are major exposure pathways for humans. To protect human health from the consumption of contaminated FFPs, it is essential to develop a systematic tool for evaluating exposure and risks. Objectives: To regularly, accurately, and quickly evaluate adverse health outcomes due to FFPs contamination, we developed an automated dietary exposure and risk assessment system called HERA (the Human Exposure and Risk Assessment system for chemicals in FFPs). The aim of this study was to develop an overall architecture design and demonstrate the major features of the HERA system. Methods: For the HERA system, the architecture framework consisted of multi-layer stacks from infrastructure to fish exposure and risk assessment layers. To compile different contamination levels and types of seafood consumption datasets, the data models were designed for the classification codes of FFP items, contaminants, and health-based guidance values (HBGVs). A systematic data pipeline for summarizing exposure factors was constructed through down-scaling and preprocessing the 24-hour dietary recalls raw dataset from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNAHES). Results: According to the designed data models for the classification codes, we standardized 167 seafood items and 2,741 contaminants. Subsequently, we implemented two major functional workflows: 1) preparation and 2) main process. The HERA system was developed to enable risk assessors to accumulate the concentration databases sustainably and estimate exposure levels for several populations linked to seafood consumption data in KNAHES in a user-friendly manner and in a local PC environment. Conclusions: The HERA system will support policy-makers in making risk management decisions based on a nation-wide risk assessment for FFPs.
Background: The number of synthesized chemicals has rapidly increased over the past decade. For many chemicals, there is a lack of information on toxicity. With the current movement toward reducing animal testing, the use of toxicity big data and deep learning could be a promising tool to screen potential toxicants. Objectives: This study identified potential chemicals related to reproductive and estrogen receptor (ER)- mediated toxicities for 1135 cleaning products and 886 laundry products. Methods: We listed chemicals contained in cleaning and laundry products from a publicly available database. Then, chemicals that potentially exhibited reproductive and ER-mediated toxicities were identified using the European Union Classification, Labeling and Packaging classification and ToxCast database, respectively. For chemicals absent from the ToxCast database, ER activity was predicted using deep learning models. Results: Among the 783 listed chemicals, there were 53 with potential reproductive toxicity and 310 with potential ER-mediated toxicity. Among the 473 chemicals not tested with ToxCast assays, deep learning models indicated that 42 chemicals exhibited ER-mediated toxicity. A total of 13 chemicals were identified as causing reproductive toxicity by reacting with the ER. Conclusions: We demonstrated a screening method to identify potential chemicals related to reproductive and ER-mediated toxicities utilizing chemical toxicity big data and deep learning. Integrating toxicity data from in vivo , in vitro , and deep learning models may contribute to screening chemicals in consumer products.
충남지역 다중이용시설의 환경수계에서 분리한 레지오넬라균의 특성 분석
충남지역 다중이용시설의 환경수계에서 분리한 레지오넬라균의 특성 분석
천영희(Younghee Cheon),이현아(Hyunah Lee),남해성(Hae-Sung Nam),최지혜(Jihye Choi),이다연(Dayeon Lee),고영은(Young-Eun Ko),박종진(Jongjin Park),이미영(Miyoung Lee),박준혁(Junhyuk Park)
한국환경보건학회지 제47권 제5호/ 2021
472-478 (7 pages)
공학>환경공학
초록보기
Background: The Legionella case detection and notification rate have increased in public artificial water environments where people visit, including large buildings, public baths, and hospitals. Objectives: In this study, the distribution of Legionella and its epidemiologic characteristics were analyzed in the water systems of public facilities in Chungcheongnam-do Province in South Korea. Methods: Culture and PCR analysis were performed on 2,991 environmental water system samples collected from 2017 to 2019, and associations with year, facilities, seasons, and temperature of water system were statistically analyzed by using R-Studio for Windows. Descriptive data was compared using chi-square tests and independent t-tests. Results: The detection rate of Legionella increased from 3.1% in 2017 to 10.3% in 2019, appearing most frequently in the order of public baths, large-scale buildings, hospitals, and apartments. It was detected mainly in summer from June to August, over 1.0×103 CFU/L on average in 133 cases (66.5%). Lots of germs were detected in bathtub water, cooling tower water, and warm water (p<0.001), and it was detected at higher rates in the cities where multipurpose facilities were concentrated than in rural areas (p=0.018). Conclusions: This study suggests that continuous monitoring and control are required for Legionella in the water system environment of high risk facilities. Moreover, these results will be helpful to prepare efficient management plans to prevent the Legionellosis that occurs in Chungcheongnam-do Province.
충청남도 해안지역의 비브리오 패혈증균 분포 및 분리주의 특성 분석
충청남도 해안지역의 비브리오 패혈증균 분포 및 분리주의 특성 분석
이현아(Hyunah Lee),고영은(Young-Eun Ko),최지혜(Jihye Choi),이다연(Dayeon Lee),여성순(Seoungsoon Yeo),박종진(Jongjin Park),이미영(Miyoung Lee),최진하(Jinha Choi),박준혁(Junhyuk Park)
한국환경보건학회지 제47권 제5호/ 2021
479-485 (7 pages)
공학>환경공학
초록보기
Background: Vibrio vulnificus has been frequently detected in seawater, fish, and shellfish mainly in the coastal areas of Chungcheongnam-do Province. Objectives: This study was conducted to investigate the analyzed biochemical properties, genetic characteristics, and distribution of Vibrio vulnificus isolated from environmental sources in coastal areas of Chungcheongnam-do Province from 2019 to 2020. Methods: A total of 1,510 samples were obtained from six different sites in Chungcheongnam-do Province. Isolated strains from the samples were identified by a VITEK 2 system and MALDI-TOF. Antibiotic susceptibility testing for 85 isolates was done by microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration methods, and 11 isolates were analyzed for 16s rRNA sequences in multiple alignments. Results: Among the 1,510 samples taken during the investigation period, 306 strains were isolated and the detection rate of V. vulnificus was 20.3%. One hundred eighty-eight strains (24.6%) from seawater and 118 strains (15.8%) from mud flats were isolated. It was mainly detected in July (17.3%), August (36.5%), and September (28.8%), and the proportion was 82.0%. Based on the CLSI-recommended breakpoints, V. vulnificus isolates were all susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, amikacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. However, nonsusceptible isolates to ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefazolin, cefoxitin, imipenem, tetracycline and chloramphenicol were identified. In the analysis of the nucleotide sequences for 16s rRNA of V. vulnificus isolates, it was confirmed that mutations frequently occurred between nucleotide number 922 and 952, and 98.2% to 100% nucleotide identities between isolates was verified. Conclusions: The results of this study can be used as a basic data for infection control and prevention of Vibrio vulnificus infection by describing the distribution and characteristics of Vibrio vulnificus strains isolated in coastal areas of Chungcheongnam-do Province.
지역간 상대위험도 변동을 고려한 미세먼지 기인 질병부담 및 사회경제적 비용 추정 연구
지역간 상대위험도 변동을 고려한 미세먼지 기인 질병부담 및 사회경제적 비용 추정 연구
변가람(Garam Byun),최용수(Yongsoo Choi),길준수(Junsu Gil),차준일(Junil Cha),이미혜(Meehye Lee),이종태(Jong-Tae Lee)
한국환경보건학회지 제47권 제5호/ 2021
486-495 (10 pages)
공학>환경공학
초록보기
Background: Particulate matter (PM) is one of the leading causes of premature death worldwide. Previous studies in South Korea have applied a relative risk calculated from Western populations when estimating the disease burden attributable to PM. However, the relative risk of PM on health outcomes may not be the same across different countries or regions. Objectives: This study aimed to estimate the premature deaths and socioeconomic costs attributable to longterm exposure to PM in South Korea. We considered not only the difference in PM concentration between regions, but also the difference in relative risk. Methods: National monitoring data of PM concentrations was obtained, and missing values were imputed using the AERMOD model and linear regression model. As a surrogate for relative risk, hazard ratios (HRs) of PM for cardiovascular and respiratory mortality were estimated using the National Health Insurance Service- National Sample Cohort. The nation was divided into five areas (metropolitan, central, southern, southeastern, and Gangwon-do Province regions). The number of PM attributable deaths in 2018 was calculated at the district level. The socioeconomic cost was derived by multiplying the number of deaths and the statistical value of life. Results: The average PM₁₀ concentration for 2014~2018 was 45.2 μg/㎥. The association between long-term exposure to PM10 and mortality was heterogeneous between areas. When applying area-specific HRs, 23,811 premature deaths from cardiovascular and respiratory disease in 2018 were attributable to PM₁₀ (reference level 20 μg/㎥). The corresponding socioeconomic cost was about 31 trillion won. These estimated values were higher than that when applying nationwide HRs. Conclusions: This study is the first research to estimate the premature mortality caused by long-term exposure to PM using relative risks derived from the national population. This study will help precisely identify the national and regional health burden attributed to PM and establish the priorities of air quality policy.
HPLC-AFS를 이용한 해산물 중 비소 화학종 분리정량
HPLC-AFS를 이용한 해산물 중 비소 화학종 분리정량
정승우(Seung-Woo Jeong),이채혁(Chae-Hyeok Lee),이종화(Jong-Wha Lee),장봉기(Bong-Ki Jang)
한국환경보건학회지 제47권 제5호/ 2021
496-503 (8 pages)
공학>환경공학
초록보기
Background: Considering the expenses of and difficulties in arsenic speciation by high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS), alternative measurement methods should be useful, especially for large-scale research and projects. Objectives: A measurement method was developed for arsenic speciation using HPLC-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HPLC-AFS) as an alternative to HPLC-ICP-MS. Methods: Total arsenic and toxic arsenic species in some seafoods were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry coupled with hydride vapor generation (AAS-HVG) and HPLC-AFS, respectively. Recovery rate of arsenic species in seafood was evaluated by ultra sonication, microwave and enzyme (pepsin) for the optimal extraction method. Results: Limits of detection of HPLC-AFS for As3+, dimethylarsinate (DMA), monomethylarsonate (MMA) and As5+ were 0.39, 0.53, 0.60 and 0.64 μg/L, respectively. The average accuracy ranged from 97.5 to 108.7%, and the coefficient of variation was in the range of 1.2~16.7%. As3+, DMA, MMA and As5+ were detected in kelp, the sum of toxic arsenic in kelp was 40.4 mg/kg. As3+, DMA, MMA and As5+ were not detected in shrimp and squid, but total arsenic (iAS and oAS) content in shrimp and squid analyzed by AAS-HVG were 18.1 and 24.7 mg/kg, respectively. Conclusions: HPLC-AFS was recommendable for the quantitative analysis method of arsenic species. As toxic arsenic species are detected in seaweeds, further researches are needed for the contribution degree of seafood in arsenic exposure.
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