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농수해양 > 기타농수해양 (28,675건)

Bacterial Community Structure and the Dominant Species in Imported Pollens for Artificial Pollination
Bacterial Community Structure and the Dominant Species in Imported Pollens for Artificial Pollination
Su-Hyeon Kim;Heeil Do;Gyeongjun Cho;Da-Ran Kim;Youn-Sig Kwak
한국식물병리학회 / The Plant Pathology Journal 제37권 제3호 / 2021 / 299-306 (8 pages)
농수해양>기타농수해양 / KDC : 기술과학 > 농업, 농학 / KCI : 농수해양 > 농학
초록보기
Pollination is an essential process for plants to carry on their generation. Pollination is carried out in various ways depending on the type of plant species. Among them, pollination by insect pollinator accounts for the most common. However, these pollinators have be decreasing in population density due to environmen- tal factors. Therefore, use of artificial pollination is increasing. However, there is a lack of information on microorganisms present in the artificial pollens. We showed the composition of bacteria structure present in the artificial pollens of apple, kiwifruit, peach and pear, and contamination of high-risk pathogens was in- vestigated. Acidovorax spp., Pantoea spp., Erwinia spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Xanthomonas spp., which are classified as potential high-risk pathogens, have been identified in imported pollens. This study presented the pollen-associated bacterial community structure, and the results are expected to be foundation for strength- ening biosecurity in orchard industry.
Preparation of Nanomaterial Wettable Powder Formulations of Antagonistic Bacteria from Phellodendron chinense and the Biological Control of Brown Leaf Spot Disease
Preparation of Nanomaterial Wettable Powder Formulations of Antagonistic Bacteria from Phellodendron chinense and the Biological Control of Brown Leaf Spot Disease
Yanling Zeng;Han Liu;Tianhui Zhu;Shan Han;Shujiang Li
한국식물병리학회 / The Plant Pathology Journal 제37권 제3호 / 2021 / 215-231 (17 pages)
농수해양>기타농수해양 / KDC : 기술과학 > 농업, 농학 / KCI : 농수해양 > 농학
초록보기
Brown leaf spot disease caused by Nigrospora guilin- ensis on Phellodendron chinense occurs in a large area in Dayi County, Chengdu City, Sichuan Province, China each year. This outbreak has severely reduced the production of Chinese medicinal plants P. chinense and caused substantial economic losses. The bacterial isolate JKB05 was isolated from the healthy leaves of P. chinense, exhibited antagonistic effects against N. guilinensis and was identified as Bacillus megaterium. The following fermentation medium and conditions improved the inhibitory effect of B. megaterium JKB05 on N. guilinensis: 2% glucose, 0.1% soybean powder, 0.1% KCl, and 0.05% MgSO4; initial concentration 6 × 106 cfu/ml, and a 42-h optimal fermentation time. A composite of 0.1% nano-SiO2 JKB05 improved the thermal stability, acid-base stability and ultraviolet resistance by 16%, 12%, and 38.9%, respectively, and nano-SiO2 was added to the fermentation process. The best formula for the wettable powder was 35% kaolin, 4% polyethylene glycol, 8% Tween, and 2% humic acid. The following quality test results for the wettable powder were obtained: wetting time 87.0 s, suspension rate 80.33%, frequency of microbial contamination 0.08%, pH 7.2, fineness 95.8%, drying loss 1.47%, and storage stability ≥83.5%. A pot experiment revealed that the ability of JKB05 to prevent fungal infections on P. chinense increased considerably and achieved levels of control as high as 94%. The use of nanomaterials significantly improved the ability of biocontrol bacteria to control this disease.
Identification of Plant Viruses Infecting Pear Using RNA Sequencing
Identification of Plant Viruses Infecting Pear Using RNA Sequencing
Nam-Yeon Kim;Hyo-Jeong Lee;Hong-Sup Kim;Su-Heon Lee;Jae-Sun Moon;Rae-Dong Jeong
한국식물병리학회 / The Plant Pathology Journal 제37권 제3호 / 2021 / 258-267 (10 pages)
농수해양>기타농수해양 / KDC : 기술과학 > 농업, 농학 / KCI : 농수해양 > 농학
초록보기
Asian pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) is a widely cultivated and commercially important fruit crop, which is occasion- ally subject to severe economic losses due to latent viral infections. Thus, the aim of the present study was to ex- amine and provide a comprehensive overview of virus populations infecting a major pear cultivar (‘Singo’) in Korea. From June 2017 to October 2019, leaf samples (n = 110) of pear trees from 35 orchards in five major pear-producing regions were collected and subjected to RNA sequencing. Most virus-associated contigs matched the sequences of known viruses, including apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) and apple stem pit- ting virus (ASPV). However, some contigs matched the sequences of apple green crinkle-associated virus and cucumber mosaic virus. In addition, three complete or nearly complete genomes were constructed based on transcriptome data and subjected to phylogenetic anal- yses. Based on the number of virus-associated reads, ASGV and ASPV were identified as the dominant vi- ruses of ‘Singo.’ The present study describes the virome of a major pear cultivar in Korea, and looks into the diversity of viral communities in this cultivar. This study can provide valuable information on the complexity of genetic variability of viruses infecting pear trees.
Graphene Based Electrochemical DNA Biosensor for Detection of False Smut of Rice (Ustilaginoidea virens)
Graphene Based Electrochemical DNA Biosensor for Detection of False Smut of Rice (Ustilaginoidea virens)
Kritika Rana;Jagjiwan Mittal;Jagriti Narang;Annu Mishra;Ramesh Namdeo Pudake
한국식물병리학회 / The Plant Pathology Journal 제37권 제3호 / 2021 / 291-298 (8 pages)
농수해양>기타농수해양 / KDC : 기술과학 > 농업, 농학 / KCI : 농수해양 > 농학
초록보기
False smut caused by Ustilaginoidea virens is an impor- tant rice fungal disease that significantly decreases its production. In the recent past, conventional methods have been developed for its detection that is time-consuming and need high-cost equipments. The research and development in nanotechnology have made it possible to assemble efficient recognition interfaces in biosensors. In this study, we present a simple, sensitive, and selective oxidized graphene-based geno-biosensor for the detection of rice false smut. The biosensor has been developed using a probe DNA as a biological recognition element on paper electrodes, and oxidized graphene to enhance the limit of detection and sensitivity of the sensor. Probe single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and target ssDNA hybridization on the interface surface has been quantitatively measured with the electrochemical analysis tools namely, cyclic voltammetry, and linear sweep voltammetry. To confirm the selectivity of the device, probe hybridization with non-complementary ssDNA target has been studied. In our study, the developed sensor was able to detect up to 10 fM of target ssDNA. The paper electrodes were employed to pro- duce an effective and cost-effective platform for the immobilization of the DNA and can be extended to design low-cost biosensors for the detection of the other plant pathogens.
Current Classification of the Bacillus pumilus Group Species, the Rubber- Pathogenic Bacteria Causing Trunk Bulges Disease in Malaysia as Assessed by MLSA and Multi rep-PCR Approaches
Current Classification of the Bacillus pumilus Group Species, the Rubber- Pathogenic Bacteria Causing Trunk Bulges Disease in Malaysia as Assessed by MLSA and Multi rep-PCR Approaches
Ainur Ainiah Azman Husni;Siti Izera Ismail;Noraini Md. Jaafar;Dzarifah Zulperi
한국식물병리학회 / The Plant Pathology Journal 제37권 제3호 / 2021 / 243-257 (15 pages)
농수해양>기타농수해양 / KDC : 기술과학 > 농업, 농학 / KCI : 농수해양 > 농학
초록보기
Bacillus pumilus is the causal agent of trunk bulges dis- ease affecting rubber and rubberwood quality and yield production. In this study, B. pumilus and other closely related species were included in B. pumilus group, as they shared over 99.5% similarity from 16S rRNA analysis. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of five housekeeping genes and repetitive elements-based poly- merase chain reaction (rep-PCR) using REP, ERIC, and BOX primers conducted to analyze the diversity and systematic relationships of 20 isolates of B. pumilus group from four rubber tree plantations in Peninsular Malaysia (Serdang, Tanah Merah, Baling, and Rawa- ng). Multi rep-PCR results revealed the genetic profil- ing among the B. pumilus group isolates, while MLSA results showed 98-100% similarity across the 20 isolates of B. pumilus group species. These 20 isolates, formerly established as B. pumilus, were found not to be grouped with B. pumilus. However, being distributed within dis- tinctive groups of the B. pumilus group comprising of two clusters, A and B. Cluster A contained of 17 isolates close to B. altitudinis, whereas Cluster B consisted of three isolates attributed to B. safensis. This is the first MLSA and rep-PCR study on B. pumilus group, which provides an in-depth understanding of the diversity of these rubber-pathogenic isolates in Malaysia.
Spatial and Temporal Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Hemileia vastatrix from Peruvian Coffee Plantations
Spatial and Temporal Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Hemileia vastatrix from Peruvian Coffee Plantations
Cinthia Quispe-Apaza;Roberto Mansilla-Samaniego;Rosa Espejo-Joya;Giovanni Bernacchia;Marisela Yabar-Larios;César López-Bonilla
한국식물병리학회 / The Plant Pathology Journal 제37권 제3호 / 2021 / 280-290 (11 pages)
농수해양>기타농수해양 / KDC : 기술과학 > 농업, 농학 / KCI : 농수해양 > 농학
초록보기
Population genetic studies of Hemileia vastatrix have been conducted in order to describe the evolutionary dynamics of the pathogen and the disease epidemiology as consequence of changes in disease management and host distribution occurred in Peru after the 2013 epi- demic. These analyses were performed by sequencing the internal transcribed spacers of the nuclear ribosom- al DNA (rDNA-ITS) of H. vastatrix collected from two coffee growing areas in 2014 and 2018. H. vastatrix pop- ulation showed high haplotype diversity (Hd = 0.9373 ± 0.0115) with a low nucleotide diversity (π = 0.00322 ± 0.00018). Likewise, AMOVA indicated that fungus population has behaved as a large population with- out structuring by geographical origin and sampling years (FST = 0.00180, P = 0.20053 and FST = 0.00241, P = 0.19693, respectively). Additionally, the haplotype network based on intraspecific phylogenetic analysis of H. vastatrix using Peruvian and NCBI sequences revealed that Peruvian ancestral haplotypes, which were maintained in time and space, would correspond to the reported sequences of the races II and XXII. This result suggests that no substantial changes have occurred through time in Peruvian Hemileia vastatrix population.
Overcoming Encouragement of Dragon Fruit Plant (Hylocereus undatus) against Stem Brown Spot Disease Caused by Neoscytalidium dimidiatum Using Bacillus subtilis Combined with Sodium Bicarbonate
Overcoming Encouragement of Dragon Fruit Plant (Hylocereus undatus) against Stem Brown Spot Disease Caused by Neoscytalidium dimidiatum Using Bacillus subtilis Combined with Sodium Bicarbonate
Sanan Ratanaprom;Korakot Nakkanong;Charassri Nualsri;Palakrit Jiwanit;Thanyakorn Rongsawat;Natthakorn Woraathakorn
한국식물병리학회 / The Plant Pathology Journal 제37권 제3호 / 2021 / 205-214 (10 pages)
농수해양>기타농수해양 / KDC : 기술과학 > 농업, 농학 / KCI : 농수해양 > 농학
초록보기
The use of the supernatant from a Bacillus subtilis culture mixed with sodium bicarbonate was explored as a means of controlling stem brown spot disease in dragon fruit plants. In in vitro experiments, the B. subtilis supernatant used with sodium bicarbonate showed a strong inhibition effect on the growth of the fungus, Neoscytalidium dimidiatum, the agent causing stem brown spot disease and was notably effective in preventing fungal invasion of dragon fruit plant. This combination not only directly suppressed the growth of N. dimidiatum, but also indirectly affected the develop- ment of the disease by eliciting the dragon-fruit plant’s defense response. Substantial levels of the pathogenesis- related proteins, chitinase and glucanase, and the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway enzymes, peroxidase and phenyl alanine ammonia-lyase, were triggered. Significant lignin deposition was also detected in treated cladodes of injured dragon fruit plants in in vivo experiments. In summary, B. subtilis supernatant combined with sodium bicarbonate protected dragon fruit plant loss through stem brown spot disease during plant development in the field through pathogenic fungal inhibition and the induction of defense response mechanisms.
Antagonistic and Plant Growth-Promoting Effects of Bacillus velezensis BS1 Isolated from Rhizosphere Soil in a Pepper Field
Antagonistic and Plant Growth-Promoting Effects of Bacillus velezensis BS1 Isolated from Rhizosphere Soil in a Pepper Field
Jong-Hwan Shin;Byung-Seoung Park;Hee-Yeong Kim;Kwang-Ho Lee;Kyoung Su Kim
한국식물병리학회 / The Plant Pathology Journal 제37권 제3호 / 2021 / 307-314 (8 pages)
농수해양>기타농수해양 / KDC : 기술과학 > 농업, 농학 / KCI : 농수해양 > 농학
초록보기
Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an important agricul- tural crop worldwide. Recently, Colletotrichum scovillei, a member of the C. acutatum species complex, was re- ported to be the dominant pathogen causing pepper an- thracnose disease in South Korea. In the present study, we isolated bacterial strains from rhizosphere soil in a pepper field in Gangwon Province, Korea, and assessed their antifungal ability against C. scovillei strain KC05. Among these strains, a strain named BS1 significantly inhibited mycelial growth, appressorium formation, and disease development of C. scovillei. By combined sequence analysis using 16S rRNA and partial gyrA sequences, strain BS1 was identified as Bacillus velezen- sis, a member of the B. subtilis species complex. BS1 produced hydrolytic enzymes (cellulase and protease) and iron-chelating siderophores. It also promoted chili pepper (cv. Nockwang) seedling growth compared with untreated plants. The study concluded that B. velezensis BS1 has good potential as a biocontrol agent of anthrac- nose disease in chili pepper caused by C. scovillei.
Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthase Subunit CgCPS1 Is Necessary for Virulence and to Regulate Stress Tolerance in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides
Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthase Subunit CgCPS1 Is Necessary for Virulence and to Regulate Stress Tolerance in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides
Aamar Mushtaq;Muhammad Tariq;Maqsood Ahmed;Zongshan Zhou;Imran Ali;Raja Tahir Mahmood
한국식물병리학회 / The Plant Pathology Journal 제37권 제3호 / 2021 / 232-242 (11 pages)
농수해양>기타농수해양 / KDC : 기술과학 > 농업, 농학 / KCI : 농수해양 > 농학
초록보기
Glomerella leaf spot (GLS) is a severe infectious dis- ease of apple whose infective area is growing gradually and thus poses a huge economic threat to the world. Different species of Colletotrichum including Colleto- trichum gloeosporioides are responsible for GLS. For efficient GLS control, it is important to understand the mechanism by which the cruciferous crops and C. gloeosporioides interact. Arginine is among one of the several types of amino acids, which plays crucial role in biochemical and physiological functions of fungi. The arginine biosynthesis pathway involved in virulence among plant pathogenic fungi is poorly understood. In this study, CgCPS1 gene encoding carbamoyl phos- phate synthase involved in arginine biosynthesis has been identified and inactivated experimentally. To as- sess the effects of CgCPS1, we knocked out CgCPS1 in C. gloeosporioides and evaluated its effects on virulence and stress tolerance. The results showed that deletion of CgCPS1 resulted in loss of pathogenicity. The Δcgcps1 mutants showed slow growth rate, defects in appres- sorium formation and failed to develop lesions on apple leaves and fruits leading to loss of virulence while complementation strain (CgCPS1-C) fully restored its pathogenicity. Furthermore, mutant strains showed extreme sensitivity to high osmotic stress displaying that CgCPS1 plays a vital role in stress response. These findings suggest that CgCPS1 is major factor that me- diates pathogenicity in C. gloeosporioides by encoding carbamoyl phosphate that is involved in arginine bio- synthesis and conferring virulence in C. gloeosporioides.
Different Phytohormonal Responses on Satsuma Mandarin (Citrus unshiu) Leaves Infected with Host-Compatible or Host-Incompatible Elsinoë fawcettii
Different Phytohormonal Responses on Satsuma Mandarin (Citrus unshiu) Leaves Infected with Host-Compatible or Host-Incompatible Elsinoë fawcettii
Kihye Shin;Dilli Prasad Paudyal;Seong Chan Lee;Jae Wook Hyun
한국식물병리학회 / The Plant Pathology Journal 제37권 제3호 / 2021 / 268-279 (12 pages)
농수해양>기타농수해양 / KDC : 기술과학 > 농업, 농학 / KCI : 농수해양 > 농학
초록보기
Citrus scab, caused by the fungal pathogen Elsinoë fawcettii, is one of the most important fungal diseases affecting Citrus spp. Citrus scab affects young tissues, including the leaves, twigs, and fruits, and produces severe fruit blemishes that reduce the market value of fresh fruits. To study the molecular responses of sat- suma mandarin (C. unshiu) to E. fawcettii, plant hor- mone-related gene expression was analyzed in response to host-compatible (SM16-1) and host-incompatible (DAR70024) isolates. In the early phase of infection by E. fawcettii, jasmonic acid- and salicylic acid-related gene expression was induced in response to infection with the compatible isolate. However, as symptoms advanced during the late phase of the infection, the jas- monic acid- and salicylic acid-related gene expression was downregulated. The gene expression patterns were compared between compatible and incompatible inter- actions. As scabs were accompanied by altered tissue growth surrounding the infection site, we conducted gibberellic acid- and abscisic acid-related gene expres- sion analysis and assessed the content of these acids during scab symptom development. Our results showed that gibberellic and abscisic acid-related gene expres- sion and hormonal changes were reduced and induced in response to the infection, respectively. Accordingly, we propose that jasmonic and salicylic acids play a role in the early response to citrus scab, whereas gibberellic and abscisic acids participate in symptom development.
Serological evidence of West Nile viral infection in archived swine serum samples from Peninsular Malaysia
Serological evidence of West Nile viral infection in archived swine serum samples from Peninsular Malaysia
Mohammed Nma Mohammed;Abd Rahaman Yasmin;Mohd Adzahan Noraniza;Siti Zubaidah Ramanoon;Siti Suri Arshad;Faruku Bande;Hussni O. Mohammed
대한수의학회 / Journal of Veterinary Science 제22권 제3호 / 2021 / 1-6 (6 pages)
농수해양>기타농수해양 / KDC : 기술과학 > 농업, 농학 / KCI : 의약학 > 수의학
초록보기
West Nile virus (WNV), a neurotropic arbovirus, has been detected in mosquitos, birds, wildlife, horses, and humans in Malaysia, but limited information is available on WNV infection in Malaysian pigs. We tested 80 archived swine serum samples for the presence of WNV antibody and West Nile (WN) viral RNA using ID Screen West Nile Competition Multi-species enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits and WNV-specific primers in reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays, respectively. A WNV seroprevalence of 62.5% (50/80) at 95% confidence interval (51.6%–72.3%) was recorded, with a significantly higher seroprevalence among young pigs (weaner and grower) and pigs from south Malaysia. One sample was positive for Japanese encephalitis virus antibodies; WN viral RNA was not detected in any of the serum samples.
Prevalence of autoantibodies that bind to kidney tissues in cats and association risk with antibodies to feline viral rhinotracheitis, calicivirus, and panleukopenia
Prevalence of autoantibodies that bind to kidney tissues in cats and association risk with antibodies to feline viral rhinotracheitis, calicivirus, and panleukopenia
Nisakorn Songaksorn;Wilaiwan Petsophonsakul;Kidsadagon Pringproa;Kannika Na Lampang;Nattawooti Sthitmatee;Nuttawan Srifawattana;Kakanang Piyarungsri;Kriangkrai Thongkorn
대한수의학회 / Journal of Veterinary Science 제22권 제3호 / 2021 / 1-17 (17 pages)
농수해양>기타농수해양 / KDC : 기술과학 > 농업, 농학 / KCI : 의약학 > 수의학
초록보기
Background: The feline viral rhinotracheitis, calicivirus, and panleukopenia (FVRCP) vaccine, prepared from viruses grown in the Crandell-Rees feline kidney cell line, can induce antibodies to cross-react with feline kidney tissues. Objectives: This study surveyed the prevalence of autoantibodies to feline kidney tissues and their association with the frequency of FVRCP vaccination. Methods: Serum samples and kidneys were collected from 156 live and 26 cadaveric cats. Antibodies that bind to kidney tissues and antibodies to the FVRCP antigen were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and kidney-bound antibody patterns were investigated by examining immunofluorescence. Proteins recognized by antibodies were identified by Western blot analysis. Results: The prevalences of autoantibodies that bind to kidney tissues in cats were 41% and 13% by ELISA and immunofluorescence, respectively. Kidney-bound antibodies were observed at interstitial cells, apical border, and cytoplasm of proximal and distal tubules; the antibodies were bound to proteins with molecular weights of 40, 47, 38, and 20 kDa. There was no direct link between vaccination and anti-kidney antibodies, but positive antibodies to kidney tissues were significantly associated with the anti-FVRCP antibody. The odds ratio or association in finding the autoantibody in cats with the antibody to FVRCP was 2.8 times higher than that in cats without the antibody to FVRCP. Conclusions: These preliminary results demonstrate an association between anti-FVRCP and anti-cat kidney tissues. However, an increase in the risk of inducing kidney-bound antibodies by repeat vaccinations could not be shown directly. It will be interesting to expand the sample size and follow-up on whether these autoantibodies can lead to kidney function impairment.
Anti-lipopolysaccharide antibody mitigates ruminal lipopolysaccharide release without acute-phase inflammation or liver transcriptomic responses in Holstein bulls
Anti-lipopolysaccharide antibody mitigates ruminal lipopolysaccharide release without acute-phase inflammation or liver transcriptomic responses in Holstein bulls
Hitoshi Mizuguchi;Keiichiro Kizaki;Atsushi Kimura;Shiro Kushibiki;Kentaro Ikuta;Yo-Han Kim;Shigeru Sato
대한수의학회 / Journal of Veterinary Science 제22권 제3호 / 2021 / 1-7 (7 pages)
농수해양>기타농수해양 / KDC : 기술과학 > 농업, 농학 / KCI : 의약학 > 수의학
초록보기
Anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antibody administration has the potential benefits of neutralizing and consequently controlling rumen-derived LPS during subacute ruminal acidosis. Four Holstein bulls were used in this crossover study with a 2-week wash-out period. Anti-LPS antibody (0 or 4 g) was administered once daily for 14 days. Significantly lower ruminal LPS and higher 1-h mean ruminal pH were identified in the 4 g group. However, blood metabolites, acute-phase proteins, cytokines, and hepatic transcriptomes were not different between the two groups. Therefore, anti-LPS antibody administration mitigated ruminal LPS release and pH depression without accompanying responses in acute-phase inflammation or hepatic transcriptomic expression.
C1qa deficiency in mice increases susceptibility to mouse hepatitis virus A59 infection
C1qa deficiency in mice increases susceptibility to mouse hepatitis virus A59 infection
Han-Woong Kim;Sun-Min Seo;Jun-Young Kim;Jae Hoon Lee;Han-Woong Lee;Yang-Kyu Choi
대한수의학회 / Journal of Veterinary Science 제22권 제3호 / 2021 / 1-12 (12 pages)
농수해양>기타농수해양 / KDC : 기술과학 > 농업, 농학 / KCI : 의약학 > 수의학
초록보기
Background: Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) A59 is a highly infectious pathogen and starts in the respiratory tract and progresses to systemic infection in laboratory mice. The complement system is an important part of the host immune response to viral infection. It is not clear the role of the classical complement pathway in MHV infection. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of the classical pathway in coronavirus pathogenesis by comparing C1qa KO mice and wild-type mice. Methods: We generated a C1qa KO mouse using CRISPR/Cas9 technology and compared the susceptibility to MHV A59 infection between C1qa KO and wild-type mice. Histopathological and immunohistochemical changes, viral loads, and chemokine expressions in both mice were measured. Results: MHV A59-infected C1qa KO mice showed severe histopathological changes, such as hepatocellular necrosis and interstitial pneumonia, compared to MHV A59-infected wild-type mice. Virus copy numbers in the olfactory bulb, liver, and lungs of C1qa KO mice were significantly higher than those of wild-type mice. The increase in viral copy numbers in C1qa KO mice was consistent with the histopathologic changes in organs. These results indicate that C1qa deficiency enhances susceptibility to MHV A59 systemic infection in mice. In addition, this enhanced susceptibility effect is associated with dramatic elevations in spleen IFN-γ, MIP-1 α, and MCP-1 in C1qa KO mice. Conclusions: These data suggest that C1qa deficiency enhances susceptibility to MHV A59 systemic infection, and activation of the classical complement pathway may be important for protecting the host against MHV A59 infection.
Excessive copper in feed not merely undermines animal health but affects food safety
Excessive copper in feed not merely undermines animal health but affects food safety
Zicheng Ma;Yan Li;Zifeng Han;Zhaohu Liu;Hongyu Wang;Fanliang Meng;Sidang Liu;Dawei Chen;Mengda Liu
대한수의학회 / Journal of Veterinary Science 제22권 제3호 / 2021 / 1-12 (12 pages)
농수해양>기타농수해양 / KDC : 기술과학 > 농업, 농학 / KCI : 의약학 > 수의학
초록보기
Background: Blackened intestines in slaughtered pigs have been commonly observed in China in recent years. However, no cause has been reported. Objectives: We attempted to determine whether the blackening of the pig intestine was related to an excess of copper (Cu) in their feed. Methods: In this study, we observed and collected porcine intestines in small- and large-scale pig slaughterhouses in Shandong province from May to October 2018. Twelve types of metal ions were detected in the black intestinal samples. Results: The Cu level in the intestine samples was mostly higher than the Chinese national limit for food. Further study showed that Cu supplementation in most commercial porcine feed also exceeded the national standard. An animal model (mouse) that could mimic the intestinal blackening in pigs was established. Compared to control mice, Cu accumulated in the liver and intestines of mice fed an excessive Cu level, confirming the excessive Cu in the feed may be considered the major cause of blackened porcine intestines. Microscopic examination revealed that black intestines had many particles containing Cu in the lamina propria of the intestinal mucosa, and the intestinal mucosal epithelial cells showed degeneration and necrosis. Conclusions: In conclusion, overuse of Cu in animal feed can lead to animal poisoning and Cu accumulation in animal products. Such overuse not only harms the health of livestock but can also affect public health.
3D-culture models as drug-testing platforms in canine lymphoma and their cross talk with lymph node-derived stromal cells
3D-culture models as drug-testing platforms in canine lymphoma and their cross talk with lymph node-derived stromal cells
Ju-Hyun An;Woo-Jin Song;Qiang Li;Dong-Ha Bhang;Hwa-Young Youn
대한수의학회 / Journal of Veterinary Science 제22권 제3호 / 2021 / 1-16 (16 pages)
농수해양>기타농수해양 / KDC : 기술과학 > 농업, 농학 / KCI : 의약학 > 수의학
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Background: Malignant lymphoma is the most common hematopoietic malignancy in dogs, and relapse is frequently seen despite aggressive initial treatment. In order for the treatment of these recurrent lymphomas in dogs to be effective, it is important to choose a personalized and sensitive anticancer agent. To provide a reliable tool for drug development and for personalized cancer therapy, it is critical to maintain key characteristics of the original tumor. Objectives: In this study, we established a model of hybrid tumor/stromal spheroids and investigated the association between canine lymphoma cell line (GL-1) and canine lymph node (LN)-derived stromal cells (SCs). Methods: A hybrid spheroid model consisting of GL-1 cells and LN-derived SC was created using ultra low attachment plate. The relationship between SCs and tumor cells (TCs) was investigated using a coculture system. Results: TCs cocultured with SCs were found to have significantly upregulated multidrug resistance genes, such as P-qp, MRP1, and BCRP, compared with TC monocultures. Additionally, it was revealed that coculture with SCs reduced doxorubicin-induced apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest of GL-1 cells. Conclusions: SCs upregulated multidrug resistance genes in TCs and influenced apoptosis and the cell cycle of TCs in the presence of anticancer drugs. This study revealed that understanding the interaction between the tumor microenvironment and TCs is essential in designing experimental approaches to personalized medicine and to predict the effect of drugs.
Enhancing immune responses to inactivated foot-and-mouth virus vaccine by a polysaccharide adjuvant of aqueous extracts from Artemisia rupestris L.
Enhancing immune responses to inactivated foot-and-mouth virus vaccine by a polysaccharide adjuvant of aqueous extracts from Artemisia rupestris L.
Danyang Wang;Yu Yang;Jinyu Li;Bin Wang;Ailian Zhang
대한수의학회 / Journal of Veterinary Science 제22권 제3호 / 2021 / 1-15 (15 pages)
농수해양>기타농수해양 / KDC : 기술과학 > 농업, 농학 / KCI : 의약학 > 수의학
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Background: New-generation adjuvants for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) vaccines can improve the efficacy of existing vaccines. Chinese medicinal herb polysaccharide possesses better promoting effects. Objectives: In this study, the aqueous extract from Artemisia rupestris L. (AEAR), an immunoregulatory crude polysaccharide, was utilized as the adjuvant of inactivated FMDV vaccine to explore their immune regulation roles. Methods: The mice in each group were subcutaneously injected with different vaccine formulations containing inactivated FMDV antigen adjuvanted with three doses (low, medium, and high) of AEAR or AEAR with ISA-206 adjuvant for 2 times respectively in 1 and 14 days. The variations of antibody level, lymphocyte count, and cytokine secretion in 14 to 42 days after first vaccination were monitored. Then cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response and antibody duration were measured after the second vaccination. Results: AEAR significantly induced FMDV-specific antibody titers and lymphocyte activation. AEAR at a medium dose stimulated Th1/Th2-type response through interleukin-4 and interferon-γ secreted by CD4+ T cells. Effective T lymphocyte counts were significantly elevated by AEAR. Importantly, the efficient CTL response was remarkably provoked by AEAR. Furthermore, AEAR at a low dose and ISA-206 adjuvant also synergistically promoted immune responses more significantly in immunized mice than those injected with only ISA-206 adjuvant and the stable antibody duration without body weight loss was 6 months. Conclusions: These findings suggested that AEAR had potential utility as a polysaccharide adjuvant for FMDV vaccines.
Full-length ORF2 sequence-based genetic and phylogenetic characterization of Korean feline caliciviruses
Full-length ORF2 sequence-based genetic and phylogenetic characterization of Korean feline caliciviruses
Sung Jae Kim;Cheongung Kim;Hee Chun Chung;Yong Ho Park;Kun Taek Park
대한수의학회 / Journal of Veterinary Science 제22권 제3호 / 2021 / 1-8 (8 pages)
농수해양>기타농수해양 / KDC : 기술과학 > 농업, 농학 / KCI : 의약학 > 수의학
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Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a highly infectious pathogen in cats and widely distributed worldwide with high genetic variation. Full-length open reading frame 2 of 5 from recently isolated Korean FCV isolates were sequenced and compared with those of global isolates. The results of phylogenetic analysis supported dividing global FCV isolates into two genogroups (type I and II) and demonstrated the presence of genogroup II in Korea, indicating their geographic spread in East Asia. High sequence variations in region E of the FCV isolates emphasizes that a novel vaccine needs to be developed to induce protective immunity against various FCV strains.
Rapidly quantitative detection of Nosema ceranae in honeybees using ultra-rapid real-time quantitative PCR
Rapidly quantitative detection of Nosema ceranae in honeybees using ultra-rapid real-time quantitative PCR
A-Tai Truong;Sedat Sevin;Seonmi Kim;Mi-Sun Yoo;Yun Sang Cho;Byoungsu Yoon
대한수의학회 / Journal of Veterinary Science 제22권 제3호 / 2021 / 1-12 (12 pages)
농수해양>기타농수해양 / KDC : 기술과학 > 농업, 농학 / KCI : 의약학 > 수의학
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Background: The microsporidian parasite Nosema ceranae is a global problem in honeybee populations and is known to cause winter mortality. A sensitive and rapid tool for stable quantitative detection is necessary to establish further research related to the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of this pathogen. Objectives: The present study aimed to develop a quantitative method that incorporates ultra-rapid real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (UR-qPCR) for the rapid enumeration of N. ceranae in infected bees. Methods: A procedure for UR-qPCR detection of N. ceranae was developed, and the advantages of molecular detection were evaluated in comparison with microscopic enumeration. Results: UR-qPCR was more sensitive than microscopic enumeration for detecting two copies of N. ceranae DNA and 24 spores per bee. Meanwhile, the limit of detection by microscopy was 2.40 × 104 spores/bee, and the stable detection level was ≥ 2.40 × 105 spores/bee. The results of N. ceranae calculations from the infected honeybees and purified spores by UR-qPCR showed that the DNA copy number was approximately 8-fold higher than the spore count. Additionally, honeybees infected with N. ceranae with 2.74 × 104 copies of N. ceranae DNA were incapable of detection by microscopy. The results of quantitative analysis using UR-qPCR were accomplished within 20 min. Conclusions: UR-qPCR is expected to be the most rapid molecular method for Nosema detection and has been developed for diagnosing nosemosis at low levels of infection.
Role of IFNLR1 gene in PRRSV infection of PAM cells
Role of IFNLR1 gene in PRRSV infection of PAM cells
Ming Qin;Wei Chen;Zhixin Li;Lixue Wang;Lixia Ma;Jinhong Geng;Yu Zhang;Jing Zhao;Yongqing Zeng
대한수의학회 / Journal of Veterinary Science 제22권 제3호 / 2021 / 1-18 (18 pages)
농수해양>기타농수해양 / KDC : 기술과학 > 농업, 농학 / KCI : 의약학 > 수의학
초록보기
Background: Interferon lambda receptor 1 (IFNLR1) is a type II cytokine receptor that clings to interleukins IL-28A, IL29B, and IL-29 referred to as type III IFNs (IFN-λs). IFN-λs act through the JAK-STAT signaling pathway to exert antiviral effects related to preventing and curing an infection. Although the immune function of IFN-λs in virus invasion has been described, the molecular mechanism of IFNLR1 in that process is unclear. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of IFNLR1 in the pathogenesis and treatment of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Methods: The effects of IFNLR1 on the proliferation of porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) during PRRSV infection were investigated using interference and overexpression methods. Results: In this study, the expressions of the IFNLR1 gene in the liver, large intestine, small intestine, kidney, and lung tissues of Dapulian pigs were significantly higher than those in Landrace pigs. It was determined that porcine IFNLR1 overexpression suppresses PRRSV replication. The qRT-PCR results revealed that overexpression of IFNLR1 upregulated antiviral and IFN-stimulated genes. IFNLR1 overexpression inhibits the proliferation of PAMs and upregulation of p-STAT1. By contrast, knockdown of IFNLR1 expression promotes PAMs proliferation. The G0/G1 phase proportion in IFNLR1-overexpressing cells increased, and the opposite change was observed in IFNLR1-underexpressing cells. After inhibition of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway, the G2/M phase proportion in the IFNLR1-overexpressing cells showed a significant increasing trend. In conclusion, overexpression of IFNLR1 induces activation of the JAK/STAT pathway, thereby inhibiting the proliferation of PAMs infected with PRRSV. Conclusion: Expression of the IFNLR1 gene has an important regulatory role in PRRSV-infected PAMs, indicating it has potential as a molecular target in developing a new strategy for the treatment of PRRSV.