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의약학 > 면역학 (3,146건)

Depression, anxiety, and stress in Korean general population during the COVID-19 pandemic
Depression, anxiety, and stress in Korean general population during the COVID-19 pandemic
Hooyeon Lee;Dongwoo Choi;Jung Jae Lee
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health 제44권 제1호 / 2022 / 1-8 (8 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
초록보기
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of poor mental health in the general Korean population during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: This cross-sectional, population-based, online survey-based study was conducted from November 5 to 20, 2020 and included adults aged 20-49 years in Chungnam Province, Korea. A total of 549 adults were included. RESULTS: In total, 18.8% of the participants had symptoms of depression, 10.6% had symptoms of anxiety, and 5.1% had a high level of perceived stress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Higher levels of stress (odds ratio [OR], 3.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13 to 8.67), anxiety (OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.09 to 4.49), and depression (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.64 to 5.50) were found among never married, widowed, divorced, and separated people than among married/cohabiting/partnered participants. Participants who felt increased stress at home during the COVID-19 outbreak reported more depression (OR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.49 to 4.05) and anxiety (OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.31 to 4.50). Women had higher risks of anxiety (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.09 to 3.58) and stress (OR, 6.40; 95% CI, 2.30 to 17.85) than men. Participants with the highest household income were less likely to report symptoms of stress than those with the lowest household income (OR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.06 to 0.96). CONCLUSIONS: The participants in this study exhibited poor mental health index scores, suggesting that some people are at risk for mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic. Being married was independently and significantly associated with a lower likelihood of depression, anxiety, and stress.
The predictive value of resting heart rate in identifying undiagnosed diabetes in Korean adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
The predictive value of resting heart rate in identifying undiagnosed diabetes in Korean adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Dong-Hyuk Park;Wonhee Cho;Yong-Ho Lee;Sun Ha Jee;Justin Y. Jeon
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health 제44권 제1호 / 2022 / 1-8 (8 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
초록보기
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was (1) to examine whether the addition of resting heart rate (RHR) to the existing undiagnosed diabetes mellitus (UnDM) prediction model would improve predictability, and (2) to develop and validate UnDM prediction models by using only easily assessable variables such as gender, RHR, age, and waist circumference (WC). METHODS: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010, 2012, 2014, 2016 data were used to develop the model (model building set, n=19,675), while the data from 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017 were used to validate the model (validation set, n=19,917). UnDM was defined as a fasting glucose level ≥126 mg/dL or glycated hemoglobin ≥6.5%; however, doctors have not diagnosed it. Statistical package for the social sciences logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of UnDM. RESULTS: RHR, age, and WC were associated with UnDM. When RHR was added to the existing model, sensitivity was reduced (86 vs. 73%), specificity was increased (49 vs. 65%), and a higher Youden index (35 vs. 38) was expressed. When only gender, RHR, age, and WC were used in the model, a sensitivity, specificity, and Youden index of 70%, 67%, and 37, respectively, were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Adding RHR to the existing UnDM prediction model improved specificity and the Youden index. Further-more, when the prediction model only used gender, RHR, age, and WC, the outcomes were not inferior to those of the existing prediction model.
The relationship between poor sleep quality measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and smoking status according to sex and age: an analysis of the 2018 Korean Community Health Survey
The relationship between poor sleep quality measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and smoking status according to sex and age: an analysis of the 2018 Korean Community Health Survey
Jun Hyun Hwang;Soon-Woo Park
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health 제44권 제1호 / 2022 / 1-9 (9 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
초록보기
OBJECTIVES: Multiple studies have found that cigarette smokers are more likely to experience sleep disturbances than non-smokers. This study aimed to examine various associations between smoking and sleep quality according to sex and age, which have yet to be sufficiently examined in prior studies. METHODS: Data analysis was conducted using a nationally representative sample of 224,986 Korean adults who participated in the 2018 Korea Community Health Survey. Sleep quality, as the dependent variable, was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), with PSQI scores indicating either good (≤4 points) or poor (>5 points) sleep quality. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed considering socio-demographic factors, health behaviors, comorbidities, and psychological factors as covariates. RESULTS: The overall weighted prevalence of poor sleep quality was 39.4% (95% confidence interval, 39.1 to 39.7). In the multivariate model that excluded psychological factors, poor sleep quality positively correlated to smoking for both sexes and all age groups except for male aged ≥65 years. However, in the full model that included psychological factors, statistically significant odds ratios (approximately 1.5) for poor sleep quality according to smoking status were only observed for female under 65 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between poor sleep quality and smoking status differed according to sex and age. In order to improve the quality of sleep, it is necessary to intervene smoking cessation along with solving psychological problems, especially female in middle age and younger.
Obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia in Korean adults before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: a special report of the 2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia in Korean adults before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: a special report of the 2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Ga Bin Lee;Yoonjung Kim;Suyeon Park;Hyeon Chang Kim;Kyungwon Oh
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health 제44권 제1호 / 2022 / 1-8 (8 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
초록보기
OBJECTIVES: We investigated trends in obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the Korean adult population. METHODS: Data from 60,098 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey between 2011 and 2020 aged ≥19 were used. The age-standardized prevalence and annual percent changes (APCs) were calculated for obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2), hypertension (systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg or under treatment), diabetes (hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5%, fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL, physician diagnosis, or under treatment), and hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol ≥240 mg/dL or under treatment). RESULTS: Over the past decade (2011-2020), the age-standardized APCs (95% confidence intervals) for obesity, hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia were 3.0% (2.1 to 3.8), 0.1% (-1.3 to 1.5), 1.5% (-1.0 to 4.0) and 8.0% (5.7 to 10.3), respectively, in men; and -0.2% (-1.5 to 1.2), -0.5% (-1.9 to 0.9), -0.1% (-2.3 to 2.2) and 5.9% (3.9 to 8.0), respectively, in women. In 2020 compared to the previous 3 years (2017-2019), obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia increased in men (6.0, 1.8, 1.9, and 2.8%p, respectively), but an increase was not apparent in women (2.5, -1.1, 0.8, and 0.7%p, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: An increase in major chronic diseases was observed in Korean adults, especially men, during the COVID-19 pandemic. In order to reduce the burden of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in the future, effective intervention strategies need to be developed according to the characteristics of the target groups.
Association between levels of physical activity and low handgrip strength: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2014-2019
Association between levels of physical activity and low handgrip strength: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2014-2019
Hyungsoon Ahn;Hwa Young Choi;Moran Ki
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health 제44권 제1호 / 2022 / 1-8 (8 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
초록보기
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the association between levels of physical activity (PA) and low handgrip strength in Korean adults. METHODS: Our cross-sectional study design included 24,109 Korean adults older than 19 years of age who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2014-2019. Low handgrip strength is described as hand strength less than the cut-off value of the 20th percentile of handgrip strength from a healthy population in each gender and age group. PA was categorized into three levels (inactive, active, and highly active) according to the World Health Organization’s global recommendations on PA for health. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between levels of PA and low handgrip strength. RESULTS: Odds ratios (ORs) for low handgrip strength were significantly higher in middle-aged women who were active (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15 to 1.69) and inactive (aOR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.23 to 1.76) than in those highly active in walking exercise. Most of older people had significantly higher ORs for low handgrip strength in active compared to highly active in the context of aerobic, muscle strengthening, and walking exercise. CONCLUSIONS: Walking exercise was associated with a lower risk of sarcopenia in middle-aged women and older individuals. However, further studies are necessary to confirm the causal relationship between levels of PA and low handgrip strength.
Independent predictors of depressive symptoms and social isolation on 2-year all-cause mortality among the Korean elderly in a population-based cohort study: gender differences
Independent predictors of depressive symptoms and social isolation on 2-year all-cause mortality among the Korean elderly in a population-based cohort study: gender differences
Hyunsuk Jeong;Hyeon Woo Yim;Beom-Woo Nam
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health 제44권 제1호 / 2022 / 1-8 (8 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
초록보기
OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether depressive symptoms and social isolation were independent predictors of 2-year all-cause mortality among the elderly using data from a population-based cohort study. METHODS: In total, 1,033 participants (320 men and 713 women) older than 60 years of age participated in this study. Depressive symptoms, social isolation status, and socio-demographic and health-related covariates were assessed at baseline. The primary outcome measure was 2-year all-cause mortality. Data were collected through in-person interviews by trained interviewers. The GENMOD procedure was used to calculate relative risks (RRs). RESULTS: Of the 1,033 participants, 102 (40 men and 62 women) died within the follow-up period of 2 years. During the 2-year follow-up period, 17.8% of depressed men and 12.3% of depressed women died, and 29.8% of socially isolated men and 14.9% of socially isolated women died. Social isolation was an independent predictor of mortality in elderly men (adjusted relative risk [aRR], 4.6, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0 to 10.2), while depressive symptoms were an independent predictor of mortality in elderly women (aRR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.6) when controlling for potential confounding factors. However, the depressive symptoms detected using the geriatric depression scale were not associated with mortality in men, and social isolation was not associated with mortality in women. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of depressive symptoms and social isolation on 2-year all-cause mortality within an elderly population differed according to gender. Gender-specific community-based interventions must be developed to potentially reduce 2-year all-cause mortality among the elderly.
An outbreak of hepatitis A associated with salted clams in Busan, Korea
An outbreak of hepatitis A associated with salted clams in Busan, Korea
Hyunjin Son;Miyoung Lee;Youngduck Eun;Wonseo Park;Kyounghee Park;Sora Kwon;Seungjin Kim;Changhoon Kim
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health 제44권 제1호 / 2022 / 1-8 (8 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
초록보기
OBJECTIVES: In July 2019, there were multiple reports on patients with hepatitis A among the visitors of a restaurant in Busan. The current study presents the results of an epidemiological investigation and outlines the supplementary measures that would help with hepatitis A control. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted for all 2,865 customers who visited restaurant A from June to July. Using a standardized questionnaire, participants reported the presence of hepatitis A symptoms and whether they had consumed any of 19 food items. As for participants who had visited public health centers, their specimens were collected. RESULTS: From the study cohort, 155 participants (5.4%) had confirmed hepatitis A. The epidemic curve was unimodal, and the median number of days from the restaurant visit to symptom onset was 31 days. A genotype analysis indicated that 89 of 90 tested patients had hepatitis A virus (HAV) genotype 1A. The results of a multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the ingestion of salted clams increased the risk of hepatitis A by 68.12 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.22 to 510.87). In an unopened package of salted clams found and secured through traceback investigation, HAV genotype 1A was detected. CONCLUSIONS: To prevent people from ingesting uncooked clams, there needs to be more efforts to publicize the dangers of uncooked clams; the food sampling test standards for salted clams should also be expanded. Furthermore, a laboratory surveillance system based on molecular genetics should be established to detect outbreaks earlier.
Neglecting the neglected during the COVID-19 pandemic: the case of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka
Neglecting the neglected during the COVID-19 pandemic: the case of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka
Janith Warnasekara;Suneth Agampodi
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health 제44권 제1호 / 2022 / 1-3 (3 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
초록보기
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted global health systems and affected the transmission dynamics as well as the surveillance of other infectious diseases. This study described the probable effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the surveillance and control of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka. With 8,579 reported cases and more than 800 estimated deaths, the Sri Lankan public health surveillance system documented the largest outbreak of leptospirosis in Sri Lankan history in 2020. This was the worst infectious disease outbreak Sri Lanka experienced in 2020, but it was neglected, primarily due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data linked Cause of Death data
The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data linked Cause of Death data
Sungha Yun;Kyungwon Oh
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health 제44권 제1호 / 2022 / 1-7 (7 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
초록보기
The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) is a national health survey that is conducted annually to assess the health and and health-related behaviors of Korean population. To utilize KNHANES data to studies of mortality risk factors, the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency (KDCA) constructed a database linking KNHANES data to cause-of-death statistics in Statistics Korea, made available to researchers since 2020. The KNHANES data were linked to the Cause of Death Statistics based on resident registration numbers for subjects aged 19 years or older who agreed to link the data. The linkage rate between 2007-2015 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and 2007-2019 Cause of Death Statistics was 97.1%. In the linked dataset, the total death rate was 6.6%, of which neoplasms accounted for the highest death rate (32.1%), followed by circulatory system disease (22.7%) and respiratory system disease (11.5%). The linked dataset was made available through the Research Data Center of the KDCA after a review of the research proposal, and will be made available after periodical updates.
Unemployment and COVID-19-related mortality: a historical cohort study of 50,000 COVID-19 patients in Fars, Iran
Unemployment and COVID-19-related mortality: a historical cohort study of 50,000 COVID-19 patients in Fars, Iran
Alireza Mirahmadizadeh;Mohammad Taghi Badeleh Shamooshaki;Amineh Dadvar;Mohammad Javad Moradian;Mohammad Aryaie
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health 제44권 제1호 / 2022 / 1-5 (5 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
초록보기
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have estimated the risk of death associated with unemployment in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, but no studies have examined unemployment before COVID-19 infection as a risk factor for COVID-19-related mortality. Thus, this study aimed to investigate COVID-19 mortality among this population. METHODS: Data on 50,038 people aged 25-59 years were collected from 38 agencies in Fars Province, Iran, from February 2020 to July 2021. Follow-up lasted from participants’ diagnosis with COVID-19 based on the results of a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction test to participants’ death or the end of the study period. The association between unemployment and COVID-19-related mortality was estimated using the Poisson regression method, and a sensitivity analysis was conducted to calculate the E-value. RESULTS: Unemployment was associated with a 2.41-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.01 to 2.90) higher age-adjusted and sex-adjusted risk of COVID-19-related mortality. The adjusted Poisson regression analysis showed 8.82 (95% CI, 6.42 to 12.11), 2.84 (95% CI, 1.90 to 4.24), and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.24 to 2.01) times higher risks of COVID-19-related mortality among unemployed people aged 25-39 years, 40-49 years, and 50-59 years, respectively, than among their employed counterparts. Unemployment increased the risk of COVID-19 mortality by 3.31 (95% CI, 2.31 to 4.74) and 2.30 (95% CI, 1.86 to 2.84) times in female and male, respectively. The E-value was 3.43, reflecting the minimum strength of confounding required to shift the association between unemployment and COVID-19-related mortality toward the null. CONCLUSIONS: Unemployment prior to COVID-19 infection increased the risk of COVID-19-related mortality. COVID-19-related mortality disproportionately impacted unemployed women and younger unemployed people.
Quantifying the duration of the preclinical detectable phase in cancer screening: a systematic review
Quantifying the duration of the preclinical detectable phase in cancer screening: a systematic review
Sandra M. E. Geurts;Anne M. W. M. Aarts;André L. M. Verbeek;Tony H. H. Chen;Mireille J. M. Broeders;Stephen W. Duffy
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health 제44권 제1호 / 2022 / 1-11 (11 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
초록보기
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to provide an overview of published mathematical estimation approaches to quantify the duration of the preclinical detectable phase (PCDP) using data from cancer screening programs. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase was conducted for original studies presenting mathematical approaches using screening data. The studies were categorized by mathematical approach, data source, and assumptions made. Furthermore, estimates of the duration of the PCDP of breast and colorectal cancer were reported per study population. RESULTS: From 689 publications, 34 estimation methods were included. Five distinct types of mathematical estimation approaches were identified: prevalence-to-incidence ratio (n=8), maximum likelihood estimation (n=16), expectation-maximization algorithm (n=1), regression of observed on expected (n=6) and Bayesian Markov-chain Monte Carlo estimation (n=5). Fourteen studies used data from both screened and unscreened populations, whereas 19 studies included only information from a screened population. Estimates of the duration of the PCDP varied between 2 years and 7 years for breast cancer in the Health Insurance Plan study (annual mammography and clinical breast examinations in women aged 40-64 years) and 2 years and 5 years for colorectal cancer in the Calvados study (a guaiac fecal occult blood test in men and women aged 45-74 years). CONCLUSIONS: Different types of mathematical approaches lead to different estimates of the PCDP duration. We advise researchers to use the method that matches the data available, and to use multiple methods for estimation when possible, since no method is perfect.
Smoking, drinking, and physical activity among Korean adults before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: a special report of the 2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Smoking, drinking, and physical activity among Korean adults before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: a special report of the 2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Sunhye Choi;Jinwook Bahk;Suyeon Park;Kyungwon Oh;Kyunghee Jung-Choi
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health 제44권 제1호 / 2022 / 1-9 (9 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
초록보기
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe trends in health behaviours between 2011 and 2020 and compare the changes in these behaviours between the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic and previous periods according to socio-demographic variables. METHODS: This study used data from the 2011 to 2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Current cigarette smoking, high-risk drinking, and inadequate physical activity levels were used as health behaviour indicators. The age-standardized prevalence, differences in prevalence between the periods, and the annual percentage change (APC) were calculated. RESULTS: Current cigarette smoking showed a decreasing trend (APC, -2.6), high-risk drinking remained unchanged, and inadequate physical activity levels increased (APC, 3.5) during 2011-2020. There were significant differences in high-risk drinking (3.1%p; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3 to 5.9) and inadequate physical activity levels (4.3%p; 95% CI, 0.4 to 8.1) between 2019 and 2020 in men. Among men, increased high-risk drinking was found in those aged 40-49 years, non-single households, urban residents, and the middle and highest income groups between 2019 and 2020. The low educational group and manual workers among men aged 30-59 years also showed an increased proportion of high-risk drinking. Inadequate physical activity levels also increased among men between 2019 and 2020 in those aged 30-39 years, non-single households, urban residents, and the upper-middle-income group. CONCLUSIONS: In the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, Korean men’s high-risk drinking and inadequate physical activity levels increased. In addition to social efforts to reduce the spread of infectious diseases, active measures to positively change health behaviour are needed.
Differences in accuracy of height, weight, and body mass index between self-reported and measured using the 2018 Korea Community Health Survey data
Differences in accuracy of height, weight, and body mass index between self-reported and measured using the 2018 Korea Community Health Survey data
Yoonsil Ko;Sunhye Choi;Jisoo Won;Yeon-Kyeng Lee;Dong-Hyun Kim;Seon Kui Lee
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health 제44권 제1호 / 2022 / 1-8 (8 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
초록보기
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine an effective survey method for the accurate calculation of obesity prevalence by comparing the self-reported and measured height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) using the 2018 Korea Community Healthy Survey (CHS) data. METHODS: Raw data from the 2018 CHS were used to analyze the differences, correlation, and agreement between self-reported and measured height, weight, and BMI. RESULTS: The self-reported height was over-reported than the measured height (0.59 cm greater for men and 0.71 cm greater for women), while the self-reported weight was under-reported than the measured weight (0.55 kg less for men and 0.67 kg less for women). Subsequently, the self-reported BMI was under-estimated (0.35 kg/m2 lower for men and 0.49 kg/m2 lower for women) compared with the measured BMI. The kappa statistic and agreement between measured and self-reported values per BMI category (underweight, normal, overweight, and obesity) were 0.82 and 79.6%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of obesity should be calculated using the measured values provided in the CHS in order to promote local health projects based on accurate evidence.
Age-specific effects of ozone on pneumonia in Korean children and adolescents: a nationwide time-series study
Age-specific effects of ozone on pneumonia in Korean children and adolescents: a nationwide time-series study
Kyoung-Nam Kim;Youn-Hee Lim;Sanghyuk Bae;In Gyu Song;Soontae Kim;Yun-Chul Hong
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health 제44권 제1호 / 2022 / 1-8 (8 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
초록보기
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to estimate the age-specific effects of 8-hour maximum ozone levels on pneumonia in children and adolescents. METHODS: We performed quasi-Poisson regression analyses for individuals of 0-4 years, 5-9 years, 10-14 years, and 15-19 years of age using nationwide time-series data from the Korea (2011-2015). We constructed distributed lag linear models employing a generalized difference-in-differences method and controlling for other air pollutants. RESULTS: A 10.0-parts per billion increase in 8-hour maximum ozone levels was associated with a higher risk of hospital admissions due to pneumonia at 0-4 (relative risk [RR], 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.03) and 5-9 years of age (RR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.08), but not at 10-14 (RR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.04) or 15-19 years of age (RR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.06). The association between ozone and hospital admissions due to pneumonia was stronger in cool seasons (from November to April) than in warm seasons (from May to October), but was similar between boys and girls. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term exposure to ozone was associated with a higher risk of pneumonia at 0-4 years and 5-9 years of age, but not at 10-14 years or 15-19 years of age. Our findings can help identify vulnerable periods, determine the target populations for public health interventions, and establish air pollution standards.
Trends in gastrointestinal infections before and during non-pharmaceutical interventions in Korea in comparison with the United States
Trends in gastrointestinal infections before and during non-pharmaceutical interventions in Korea in comparison with the United States
Soyeoun Kim;Jinhyun Kim;Bo Youl Choi;Boyoung Park
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health 제44권 제1호 / 2022 / 1-7 (7 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
초록보기
OBJECTIVES: This study examined how trends in the weekly frequencies of gastrointestinal infectious diseases changed before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Korea, and compared them with the trends in the United States. METHODS: We compared the weekly frequencies of gastrointestinal infectious diseases (16 bacterial and 6 viral diseases) in Korea during weeks 5-52 before and after COVID-19. In addition, the weekly frequencies of 5 gastrointestinal infectious diseases in the United States (data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) that overlapped with those in Korea were compared. RESULTS: The mean weekly number of total cases of gastrointestinal infectious diseases in Korea showed a significant decrease (from 522 before COVID-19 to 245 after COVID-19, p<0.01). Only bacterial gastrointestinal infectious diseases caused by Campylobacter increased significantly; other bacterial gastrointestinal infectious diseases showed either a decrease or no change. The incidence of all other viral diseases decreased. In the United States, the weekly numbers of Salmonella, Campylobacter, typhoid, shigellosis, and hepatitis A virus cases sharply decreased after the COVID-19 outbreak. The weekly case numbers of all viral diseases markedly decreased in both countries; however, bacterial gastrointestinal infectious diseases showed a different pattern. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of gastrointestinal infectious diseases decreased after the COVID-19 outbreak. In contrast, Campylobacter infections showed an increasing trend in Korea, but a decreasing trend in the United States. Further studies are needed to elucidate the different trends in bacterial and viral infectious diseases before and after non-pharmaceutical interventions and between different countries.
Happy New Year 2022 from Epidemiology and Health (epiH)
Happy New Year 2022 from Epidemiology and Health (epiH)
Hyeon Chang Kim
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health 제44권 제1호 / 2022 / 1-1 (1 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
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The general public’s perspectives on telemedicine during the COVID-19 pandemic in Korea: analysis of a nationwide survey
The general public’s perspectives on telemedicine during the COVID-19 pandemic in Korea: analysis of a nationwide survey
EunKyo Kang;Hyejin Lee;Ki Jeong Hong;Jieun Yun;Jin Yong Lee;Yun-Chul Hong
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health 제44권 제1호 / 2022 / 1-10 (10 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
초록보기
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the awareness, experience, approval, intention to use, and the desired type of telemedicine among Korean general public. METHODS: From November to December 2020, we conducted an online self-reported survey on awareness, experience, approval, and intent to use telemedicine services among Korean residents aged 20 years or older. A total of 2,097 participants completed the survey. RESULTS: Of the 2,097 participants, 1,558 (74.3%) were aware of, 1,198 (57.1%) approved of, and 1,474 (70.3%) had the intention to use telemedicine. Participants from regions other than the Seoul metropolitan area and Daegu-Gyeongbuk Province (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.63), households with a monthly household income of US$6,000 or more (aOR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.01 to 2.08), participants who had a college/university or associate’s degree (aOR, 1.35. 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.75) or a master’s degree or above (aOR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.20 to 2.50), and housewives (aOR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.64) had higher odds of approval. Elderly participants, those with a chronic disease (aOR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.54), those who had experienced delays of healthcare services (aOR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.27 to 2.96), and those who had experience with telemedicine (aOR, 4.28; 95% CI, 1.69 to 10.82) were more likely to intend to use telemedicine services. Regarding types of telemedicine, teleconsultation between doctors showed the highest approval rate (73.1%). CONCLUSIONS: In the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, more than 70% of participants had already used or intended to use telemedicine at some point. Groups with a substantial need for telemedicine were more in favor of telemedicine.
Measles susceptibility of marriage migrant women in Korea
Measles susceptibility of marriage migrant women in Korea
Sooyeon Kim;Sun A Kim;Hanbich Hong;Seong Ryeong Choi;Hae-Young Na;Sung Un Shin;Kyung-Hwa Park;Sook In Jung;Min-Ho Shin;Sun-Seog Kweon;Seung Ji Kang
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health 제44권 제1호 / 2022 / 1-4 (4 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
초록보기
International migrants could be considered a risk group susceptible to vaccine-preventable diseases. We conducted a measles seroprevalence study among 419 marriage migrant women living in Sinan-gun and Wando-gun, South Jeolla Province, located in the southwestern part of Korea. The overall seroimmunity was 92.8%. The seroimmunity varied considerably according to the country of origin and increased with age. Our current analysis could be valuable in the context of discussions concerning vaccination policies for immigrants in Korea.
Impact of water fluoridation on dental caries decline across racial and income subgroups of Brazilian adolescents
Impact of water fluoridation on dental caries decline across racial and income subgroups of Brazilian adolescents
Rafael Aiello Bomfim;Paulo Frazão
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health 제44권 제1호 / 2022 / 1-7 (7 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
초록보기
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of community water fluoridation (CWF) on differences in dental caries decline across racial and socioeconomic subgroups of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS: Two nationwide Brazilian population-based oral health surveys were used (Brazilian Oral Health Survey 2003 and 2010). In total, 7,198 adolescents from 15 years to 19 years old living in 50 cities investigated in both surveys were included. The mean numbers of untreated decayed teeth (DT) according to racial (Whites vs. Browns/Blacks) and socioeconomic subgroups (at or above the minimum wage per capita vs. under) were analysed. Difference-in-differences negative binomial regressions were adjusted by schooling, age, and sex. Decayed, missing, and filled teeth and DT prevalence, calculated as a categorical variable, were used in sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: The adjusted difference of reduction in DT was similar across socioeconomic subgroups (β=-0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.45 to 0.35) and favoured, but not to a significant degree, Whites (β=-0.34; 95% CI, -0.74 to 0.04) compared to Brown/Blacks in fluoridated areas. In non-fluoridated areas, significant differences were observed in the mean number of DT, favouring the higher socioeconomic subgroup (β=-0.26; 95% CI, -0.53 to -0.01) and Whites (β=-0.40; 95% CI, -0.69 to -0.11) in relation to their counterparts. The sensitivity analyses confirmed the findings. CONCLUSIONS: The similar reduction in DT across income subgroups suggests that CWF has had a beneficial effect on tackling income inequalities in dental caries within a 7-year timeframe.
Mental health of Korean adults before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: a special report of the 2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Mental health of Korean adults before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: a special report of the 2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Hyunsuk Jeong;Suyeon Park;Jihee Kim;Kyungwon Oh;Hyeon Woo Yim
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health 제44권 제1호 / 2022 / 1-11 (11 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
초록보기
OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the associated social distancing, limited freedom, and fear of an uncertain future are expected to have substantial mental health effects. We investigated mental health responses in the community during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in Korea. METHODS: We used 2016-2019 and 2020 data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) to assess pre-pandemic and pandemic mental health status, respectively, in terms of perceived severe stress, depression, and suicidal plans. All analyses were gender-stratified. Pre-specified subgroup analyses were performed according to age, employment status, and household income. RESULTS: The percentage of Korean adults with suicidal plans increased significantly from 1.3%p (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 1.5) in 2016-2019 to 1.8%p (95% CI, 1.4 to 2.1) in 2020. Individuals in their 20s and 40s showed a marked increase in suicidal plans (1.2%p; 95% CI, 0.0 to 2.3 and 0.9%p; 95% CI, 0.0 to 1.8, respectively). In men, depression and perceived severe stress increased significantly from pre-COVID-19 to 2020. There was a 2.4%p (95% CI, 0.8 to 4.0) increase in depression among standard workers and a 2.9%p increase in depression in individuals in the second-highest quintile of household income from 2016 and 2018 to 2020. CONCLUSIONS: As COVID-19 continued, mental health issues such as suicidal plans, depression, and severe stress increased significantly in young men and people in the second-highest quintile of household income. Proactive community mental health efforts are needed to prevent increases in the suicide rate resulting from prolonged exposure to the COVID-19 pandemic.