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Psychiatry Investigation

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전체선택 Endnote Refworks
Objective It is well established that the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuit is implicated in the pathophysiology of obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD). However, reports on corticostriatal functional connectivity (FC) in OCD have been inconsistent due to the structural and functional heterogeneity of the striatum. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated corticostriatal FC using a fine 12-seed striatal parcellation to overcome this heterogeneity and discover the neural correlates of symptoms in OCD patients. Methods We recruited 23 OCD patients and 23 healthy controls (HCs). Whole-brain FC based on striatal seeds was examined using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data and compared across OCD patients and HCs. We conducted correlation analysis between FCs of striatal subregions with significant group differences and symptom severity scores on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A). Results Compared to HCs, patients demonstrated increased FC of the dorsal caudal putamen and ventral rostral putamen (VRP) with several cortical regions, such as the intracalcarine cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, supramarginal/angular gyrus (SMG/AG), and postcentral gyrus (PCG). Furthermore, FC between the VRP and SMG/AG and between the VRP and PCG was negatively correlated with scores on the Y-BOCS compulsive subscale and the HAM-A, respectively. Conclusion These findings suggest that striatal subregions have strengthened FC with extensive cortical regions, which may reflect neural correlates of compulsive and anxious symptoms in OCD patients. These results contribute to an improved understanding of OCD pathophysiology by complementing the current evidence regarding striatal FC.
Association of Apolipoprotein E Polymorphisms with White Matter Lesions and Brain Atrophy
Association of Apolipoprotein E Polymorphisms with White Matter Lesions and Brain Atrophy
ZhiLi Niu,PingAn Zhang,Dong Li,ChengLiang Zhu,LiNa Feng,Ge Xiong,NaNa Song,Pei Tang,Feng Liu
Psychiatry Investigation 제17권 제2호/ 2020
96-105 (10 pages)
의약학>정신과학
초록보기
Objective Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is mainly synthesized in the liver. So far, it is unknown the relationship among APOE gene polymorphisms and WML, brain atrophy. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the associations of APOE gene polymorphisms in patients with WML and brain atrophy. Methods A total of 58 patients with WML, 128 patients with brain atrophy, 112 patients with co-occurrence of WML and brain atrophy and 95 healthy elderly volunteers were recruited from Renmin Hospital of WuHan University. Results Allele E3 was the most common allele. The alleles E2 had significantly higher levels of ApoB and lower age in WML group. The alleles E2 was associated with the lower level of ApoB, LDL-Ch, TCh, and sdLDL in co-occurrence group. The E3/E3 genotype has higher level of sdLDL, but lower age and female frequency in WML. The E3/E4 genotype had higher level of TG, but lower age in WML. Gender, Age, E2, Hyperhomocysteinemia and UA were also significantly associated with disease progression. Conclusion This study found that clinical data, lipids and metabolic complications were closely related to ApoE genotypes and alleles, and also disease progression and type.
Development and Verification of a Web Board Game Scale
Development and Verification of a Web Board Game Scale
Choongmeong Lee,Sujin Bae,Jae Jun Nam,Jae Chan Jin,Doug Hyun Han
Psychiatry Investigation 제17권 제2호/ 2020
106-113 (8 pages)
의약학>정신과학
초록보기
Objective Our previous study suggested that monitoring online board gamers may be an efficient approach to curb illegal gambling. We aimed to invent and validate a behavioral scale for assessing the risk of problematic web-based board gaming. Methods The sample included 300 Korean adults, representing a response rate of 3.1%. All participants were asked to complete a set of questionnaires, which included questions on demographic variables, patterns of online board gaming, and the web-based board game scale score. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to determine whether the items on the new behavioral scale would indicate a risk of pathologic web-based board gaming behavior. Results The internal consistency of the 17-item scale was high (Cronbach’s α=0.89). The test-retest reliability of the 17-item scale in a randomly selected sample of 100 participants in 2 weeks was r=0.77 (p<0.001). The criterion-related validity based on a comparison of the total behavioral scale scores between the high-risk group and low-risk group was relatively high. The data obtained from the 300 participants were acceptable for a factor analysis. After removing 7 items from the 17-item scale, internal consistency (Cronbach’s α) of the 10-item scale increased to 0.936. Conclusion These results showed that the 10-item version of the scale appeared to be more valid than the 17-item version. We suggest that the 10-item web-based board game behavioral scale is a useful tool for assessing the risk of pathologic web-based board gaming.
Objective The study aimed to describe the frequency and associations of the number of medical visits for the violent victimization and mental health problems in adolescents in South Korea. Methods In 2017, 62,276 middle and high school students participated in the thirteenth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBS). The frequency of violence victimization during the last 12 months was measured. The collected data were analyzed by applying descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, multiple linear regression, and logistic regression analysis, using the SPSS 22.0. The data were weighted to generate national estimates. Results Among the respondents (sample size=62,276, weighted=3,027,488), 3.7% of boys and 1.7% of girls had experienced being treated by a doctor due to violence during the recent past 12 months. In multiple linear regression analysis, feelings of sadness or hopeless, suicide ideation, suicide plan, suicide attempt were positively associated with violence victimization (F=32656.037, p<0.001) dose response. Conclusion The results found cross-sectional evidence that violence victimization was associated with higher suicide behavior and depressed mood. The victims of violence should be referred follow-up for physical and psychological issues. Also, a policy including the first responders and medical staffs should be initiated.
Objective Individual differences in attachment insecurity are important in a broad range of mental health problems. However, few empirical studies have examined the clinical factors that contribute to individual differences in attachment style. This study examines the nature of interrelationships among adult attachment styles, sensitivities of behavioral activation system/behavioral inhibition system (BIS/BAS), and childhood trauma in patients with depressive disorders. Methods Patients with depressive disorders (n=294) completed self-report questionnaires evaluating adult attachment style, childhood trauma, and BIS/BAS sensitivity. We performed multiple regression analyses to examine the associations between attachment style and other clinical factors, including childhood trauma and BIS/BAS sensitivity. We also conducted hierarchical regression analyses and simple slope analyses to examine the interaction between BIS/BAS sensitivity and childhood trauma. Results The BAS sensitivity was negatively associated with attachment avoidance. The higher was the BIS/BAS sensitivity, the higher was the level of attachment anxiety. Among childhood trauma, emotional neglect contributed to both dimensions of insecure attachment. The interaction between BAS sensitivity and emotional neglect is significantly associated with attachment anxiety. Conclusion This study used data regarding the interrelationship of childhood trauma and basic motivational systems to contribute to the understanding of adult insecure attachment behaviors, a risk factor for depression.
Objective Immunomodulation is a therapeutic technique that modulates the balance of cytokines in the body. In this regard, our experiment was conducted to investigate the potential effect of S. coronopifolius crude extract in combination with low dose of Bacillus Calmette- Guerin (BCG) on depression-like behaviors in female Wistar rats. Methods Sciatic nerve injury was employed to induce depression and intradermal injection of 0.02 mL of BCG per rat was administered to lead an activation of innate immune system. Daily intra-peritoneal injections of 25 mg algae extract kg-1 body weight were performed for 14 continuous days. Forced Swimming (FS) and Open Field (OF) tests were conducted to assess despairing and spontaneous behaviors. At the end of the experiment, brain was removed to determine the activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), whereas spleen and adrenals were used for the histopathological study. Results The combined treatment exhibited antidepressant-like activity in FST by reducing immobility time, without inducing any significant change in ambulatory behavior in OFT. The histological analyses of spleen and adrenal structure showed a conserved architecture. Conclusion The results suggested that algae extract produce an antidepressant-like effect in combination with low dose of BCG, which is possibly trigged by its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Objective Viral infections play an important role in the development of schizophrenia, inducing the faulty immunological responses and aberrant inflammation. IFN-γ-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) is an immunological DNA sensor against viral infections, triggering the inflammatory responses. In this study, we investigated an association between putative promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes of IFI16 and schizophrenia. Methods A total of 280 schizophrenia patients and 427 control subjects were recruited in this study. We genotyped three promoter SNPs (rs1465175, rs3754464, rs1417806) using direct sequencing. Associations of SNPs and haplotypes of IFI16 with schizophrenia were analyzed. The promoter activities on the haplotypes of IFI16 were measured. Results The T allele of rs1465175 and the C allele of rs1417806 were protectively associated with schizophrenia (p=0.021 on rs1465175; p=0.016 on rs1417806), whereas the G allele of rs3754464 was associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia (p=0.019). In haplotype analysis, a significant association between the GGA haplotype and schizophrenia was shown (p=0.013). Moreover, we found that the GGA haplotype elevated the promoter activity compared to the GAA haplotype, whereas the TAC haplotype reduced that. Conclusion The promoter SNPs and haplotypes of IFI16 may contribute to the susceptibility of schizophrenia, affecting the promoter activity of IFI16.
Resilience as a Protective Factor for Suicidal Ideation among Korean Workers
Resilience as a Protective Factor for Suicidal Ideation among Korean Workers
Sun Mi Kim,Hye Ri Kim,Kyoung Joon Min,Seo-Koo Yoo,Young-Chul Shin,Eun-Jin Kim,Sang Won Jeon
Psychiatry Investigation 제17권 제2호/ 2020
147-156 (10 pages)
의약학>정신과학
초록보기
Objective This study aimed to investigate resilience as a protective factor for suicidality among Korean workers. Methods Participants were workers from 26 organizations in Korea, aged 18 to 63 years, who completed a self-reported questionnaire comprising items on sociodemographic factors, job stress, resilience, and suicidality. Completed questionnaires were collected from 4,405 persons, with 4,389 valid responses. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses were performed using suicidality as the dependent variable. Results Results of the logistic regression analyses indicated that among the sociodemographic factors, older age, being female, and being single were statistically significantly associated with suicidal ideation. A high level of job stress, depressive mood, and anxiety, in addition to a short job duration, were also associated with suicidal ideation. Resilience was a significant protective factor for suicidal ideation after adjusting for all other variables. Older age and high anxiety levels were associated with having a suicide plan among participants with suicidal ideation. The association of resilience with suicide plans and suicide attempts was non-significant. Conclusion In this study, we found that a high level of resilience was associated with a low incidence of suicidal ideation in Korean workers. Based on these results, we suggest the need to develop and implement interventions to improve resilience in the workplace, thereby protecting workers, especially those with a high level of work stress, from suicidal ideation.
Skin Diseases in Patients with Primary Psychiatric Disorders
Skin Diseases in Patients with Primary Psychiatric Disorders
Paraskevi Mavrogiorgou,Corinna Mersmann,Gabriele Gerlach,Stephan Herpertz,Georg Juckel
Psychiatry Investigation 제17권 제2호/ 2020
157-162 (6 pages)
의약학>정신과학
초록보기
Objective The few psychodermatological studies of primary psychiatric populations so far suggest that parasitic-infectious skin diseases are the most common dermatological comorbidity in more than 70% of psychiatric patients, which should be studied here in a large data bank outside dermatological treatment facilities. Methods In a descriptive-explorative and retrospective study, more than 17,000 patients with primary psychiatric disorders were examined to investigate dermatological comorbidities. Results The proportion of patients with primary mental disorders and additional dermatological disease was 1.24% (n=212). Here, psoriasis (35.4%) and atopic dermatitis (22.6%) were the most frequent dermatological diseases among these 212 patients. Infectiousparasitic skin diseases were present in 13.2% of comorbid patients. The most common mental disorder was a depressive illness, seen in 42.5% (n=90) of patients. Conclusion Our results confirmed the frequent association of depression with psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, indicating the need for the early detection and treatment of such comorbid patients. In contrast, psychiatric inpatients do not appear to suffer from predominantly infectious-parasitic dermatoses.
Defining Treatment Response, Remission, Relapse, and Recovery in First-Episode Psychosis: A Survey among Korean Experts
Defining Treatment Response, Remission, Relapse, and Recovery in First-Episode Psychosis: A Survey among Korean Experts
Bong Ju Lee,Sung-Wan Kim,Jung Jin Kim,Je-Chun Yu,Kyu Young Lee,Seung-Hee Won,Seung-Hwan Lee,Seung-Hyun Kim,Shi Hyun Kang,Euitae Kim,Kunhyung Kim,Yang Hong Piao,and Young-Chul Chung
Psychiatry Investigation 제17권 제2호/ 2020
163-174 (12 pages)
의약학>정신과학
초록보기
Objective For the proper treatment of first-episode psychosis, assessment of treatment response, remission, relapse, and recovery is important. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop operational definitions of clinical outcomes in first-episode psychosis. Methods A questionnaire was developed by a panel of experts and underwent three revisions. The final survey was presented to 150 psychiatrists who were members of the Korean Society for Schizophrenia Research. Respondents selected factors that they believed were important to consider while defining treatment response, remission, relapse, and recovery using a 6-point Likert scale. Selected factors that constituted each definition were statistically extracted, and operational definitions were developed. Results A total of 91 experts responded to the survey. The extent of reduction in psychopathology, socio-occupational functioning, and duration of each state were the core factors of each definition. Outcomes obtained from discussions and consultations by experts have been summarized and proposed. Conclusion The criteria developed in this survey tended to be somewhat stricter than those used by other studies. The fundamental reason for this is that this survey focused on first-episode psychosis. A better understanding of each definition in first-episode psychosis is necessary to improve effective treatment outcomes.
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