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Psychiatry Investigation

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Because the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) was mainly influenced by the neo-Kraepelinian approach, its categorical approach to defining mental disorders has been criticized from the viewpoint of etiological neutrality. In the context of bridging the gap between “presumed etiologies-based symptomatology” and “identifiable pathophysiological etiologies,” the content in 5th edition, the DSM-5, has been revised to incorporate a combination of categorical and dimensional approaches. The most remarkable change of note regarding the diagnostic classification of depressive disorders in the DSM-5 is the splitting of mood disorders into bipolar disorders and depressive disorders, which is in accordance with the deconstruction of the Kraepelinian dualism for psychoses. The transdiagnostic specifiers “with mixed features,” “with psychotic features,” and “with anxious distress” are introduced to describe the relationships of depressive disorders with bipolar disorders, schizophrenia, and generalized anxiety disorder, respectively, in a dimensional manner. The lowering of the diagnostic threshold for major depressive disorder (MDD) may be caused by the addition of “hopelessness” to the subjective descriptors of depressive mood and the elimination of “bereavement exclusion” from the definition of MDD. Since the heterogeneity of MDD is equivalent to the Wittgensteinian “games” analogy, the different types of MDD are related not by a single essential feature but rather by “family resemblance.” Network analyses of MDD symptoms may therefore need further review to elucidate the connections among interrelated symptoms and other clinical elements.
Depression leads the higher personal and socio-economical burden within psychiatric disorders. Despite the fact that over 40 antidepressants (ADs) are available, suboptimal response still poses a major challenge and is thought to be partially a result of genetic variation. Pharmacogenetics studies the effects of genetic variants on treatment outcomes with the aim of providing tailored treatments, thereby maximizing efficacy and tolerability. After two decades of pharmacogenetic research, variants in genes coding for the cytochromes involved in ADs metabolism (CYP2D6 and CYP2C19) are now considered biomarkers with sufficient scientific support for clinical application, despite the lack of conclusive cost/effectiveness evidence. The effect of variants in genes modulating ADs mechanisms of action (pharmacodynamics) is still controversial, because of the much higher complexity of ADs pharmacodynamics compared to ADs metabolism. Considerable progress has been made since the era of candidate gene studies: the genomic revolution has made possible to assess genetic variance on an unprecedented scale, throughout the whole genome, and to analyze the cumulative effect of different variants. The results have revealed key information on the biological mechanisms mediating ADs effect and identified hypothetical new pharmacological targets. They also paved the way for future availability of polygenic pharmacogenetic panels to predict treatment outcome, which are expected to explain much higher variance in ADs response compared to CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 only. As the demand and availability of AD pharmacogenetic testing is projected to increase, it is important for clinicians to keep abreast of this evolving area to facilitate informed discussions with their patients.
Objective Depression is associated with various environmental risk factors such as stress, childhood maltreatment experiences, and stressful life events. Current approaches to assess the pathophysiology of depression, such as epigenetics and gene-environment (GxE) interactions, have been widely leveraged to determine plausible markers, genes, and variants for the risk of developing depression. Methods We focus on the most recent developments for genomic research in epigenetics and GxE interactions. Results In this review, we first survey a variety of association studies regarding depression with consideration of GxE interactions. We then illustrate evidence of epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, microRNAs, and histone modifications to influence depression in terms of animal models and human studies. Finally, we highlight their limitations and future directions. Conclusion In light of emerging technologies in artificial intelligence and machine learning, future research in epigenetics and GxE interactions promises to achieve novel innovations that may lead to disease prevention and future potential therapeutic treatments for depression.
The neuroimaging has been applied in the study of pathophysiology in major depressive disorder (MDD). In this review article, several kinds of methodologies of neuroimaging would be discussed to summarize the promising biomarkers in MDD. For the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetoencephalography field, the literature review showed the potentially promising roles of frontal lobes, such as anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). In addition, the limbic regions, such as hippocampus and amygdala, might be the potentially promising biomarkers for MDD. The structures and functions of ACC, DLPFC, OFC, amygdala and hippocampus might be confirmed as the biomarkers for the prediction of antidepressant treatment responses and for the pathophysiology of MDD. The functions of cognitive control and emotion regulation of these regions might be crucial for the establishment of biomarkers. The near-infrared spectroscopy studies demonstrated that blood flow in the frontal lobe, such as the DLPFC and OFC, might be the biomarkers for the field of near-infrared spectroscopy. The electroencephalography also supported the promising role of frontal regions, such as the ACC, DLPFC and OFC in the biomarker exploration, especially for the sleep electroencephalogram to detect biomarkers in MDD. The positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in MDD demonstrated the promising biomarkers for the frontal and limbic regions, such as ACC, DLPFC and amygdala. However, additional findings in brainstem and midbrain were also found in PET and SPECT. The promising neuroimaging biomarkers of MDD seemed focused in the fronto-limbic regions.
Objective The cognitive, Affective, and Somatic Empathy Scale (CASES) suggests novel three components structure of empathy. Although CASES developed to assess the trait empathy of both children and adult, the validation in adult sample is not yet conducted. This study developed Korean version of CASES (CASES-K) and examined the psychometric properties in young adult for first time. Methods Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to test whether the factor structure suggested in initial development study is valid in Korean young adult population. 350 young adults participated, and 44 of them also answered to other empathy scales for validation. The construct validity was ascertained through a series of correlational analysis with widely used trait empathy scales. Results The result of confirmatory factor analysis supports the three-factor model of empathy consists of affective, cognitive and somatic facets. The construct validity was ascertained through a series of correlational analysis with widely used trait empathy scales. The result of correlational analysis supports the validity of CASES-K, and especially the separation of somatic empathy from affective empathy. Conclusion The current study provides the first evidence of the validity and utility of the CASES-K in young adult population. The result also supports the commonality of three factor structure of empathy in both East Asian and Caucasian, from the children to adults.
Objective No reports have investigated the influence of age at first or last childbirth on maternal mental health. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between age at first or last childbirth and the mental health of premenopausal women. Methods The data used in this study were collected from the 2010 to 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. A total of 3,370 premenopausal women were considered. The association between childbirth age and maternal mental health factors, including stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideations were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for confounding factors. Results After adjusting confounding factors, younger maternal age at first childbirth was found to be associated with an increase in the prevalence of maternal depressed mood and suicidal ideations. Also, older maternal age at last childbirth was related to an increase in maternal stress, depressed mood and suicidal ideations. Conclusion Both younger first childbirth and older last childbirth maternal age may be risk factors for poor outcomes of premenopausal women’s mental health. These data support the need for comprehensive mental health assessment for premenopausal women who either gave birth at an age too young or too old.
A Comparative Study of Burnout, Stress, and Resilience among Emotional Workers
A Comparative Study of Burnout, Stress, and Resilience among Emotional Workers
Yu-Ri Lee,Ju-Yeon Lee,Jae-Min Kim,Il-Seon Shin,Jin-Sang Yoon,Sung-Wan Kim
Psychiatry Investigation 제16권 제9호/ 2019
686-694 (9 pages)
의약학>정신과학
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Objective To investigate associations between stress, resilience, and burnout in three emotional job sectors. Methods We conducted a multi-group comparative study using structural equation modeling and latent mean analysis. In total, 806 participants (403 call center consultants, 270 mental health workers, and 133 school counselors) completed self-administered questionnaires including the Perceived Stress Scale, Korean version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and Maslach Burnout Inventory- General Survey. Results Stress had significant direct effects on resilience and burnout, and resilience had significant direct effects on burnout in all groups. Resilience partially mediated these relationships among call center consultants and school counselors. Stress and burnout were highest in call center consultants, followed, in order, by mental health workers and school counselors. Resilience was highest in school counselors, followed, in order, by mental health workers and call center consultants. The effect size of the latent mean difference was highest for burnout, followed, in order, by resilience and stress. Conclusion Our findings suggest that stress caused by emotional labor can contribute to burnout. Interventions targeted at different sectors are needed to reduce burnout.
Objective Although early intervention from the beginning of a psychotic episode is essential for a better prognosis, biomarkers predictive of symptomatic and functional improvement in early psychotic disorders are lacking. This study aimed to investigate whether the spectral power of resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) can be used as a predictive marker of the 1-year prognosis in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP). Methods Twenty-four patients with FEP and matched healthy control (HC) subjects were examined with resting-state EEG at baseline. The symptomatic severity and functional status of FEP patients were assessed at baseline and reassessed after 1 year of usual treatment. Repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted to compare EEG spectral powers across the groups. Multiple regression analysis revealed EEG spectral powers predictive of symptomatic and functional improvement in FEP patients at the 1-year follow-up. Results Delta band power in the frontal and posterior regions was significantly higher in patients with FEP than in HCs. Higher delta band power in the posterior region predicted later improvement of positive symptoms and general functional status. Lower delta band power in the frontal region predicted improvement of negative symptoms and general functioning after 1 year. Conclusion These results suggest that increased delta absolute power is observed from the beginning of psychotic disorders. Furthermore, decreased delta power in the frontal region and increased delta power in the posterior region might be used as a predictive marker of a better prognosis of FEP, which would aid early intervention in clinical practice.
Objective The present study aimed to report the initial seizure threshold (IST) of a brief-pulse bilateral electroconvulsive therapy (BPBL ECT) in Korean patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder and to identify IST predictors. Methods Among 67 patients who received ECT and diagnosed with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder based on the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, we included 56 patients who received 1-millisecond BP-BL ECT after anesthesia with sodium thiopental between March 2012 and June 2018. Demographic and clinical information was gathered from electronic medical records, and a multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors of the IST. Results The mean age of the patients was 36.9±12.0 years and 30 (53.6%) patients were male. The mean and median IST were 105.9±54.5 and 96 millicoulombs (mC), respectively. The IST was predicted by age, gender, and dose (mg/kg) of sodium thiopental. Other physical and clinical variables were not associated with the IST. Conclusion The present study demonstrated that the IST of 1-ms BP-BL ECT following sodium thiopental anesthesia in Korean patients was comparable to those reported in previous literature. The IST was associated with age, gender, and dose of sodium thiopental.
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