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Psychiatry Investigation

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Comorbidity Between Anorexia Nervosa and Depressive Disorder: A Narrative Review
Comorbidity Between Anorexia Nervosa and Depressive Disorder: A Narrative Review
Maria Pilar Calvo-Rivera,Maria Isabel Navarrete-Pá,ez,Isabel Bodoano,Luis Gutié,rrez-Rojas
Psychiatry Investigation 제19권 제3호/ 2022
155-163 (9 pages)
의약학>정신과학
초록보기
Objective Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a disorder with a significantly high prevalence. Affective disorders, including depressive disorder (DD), often coexist with this eating disorder (ED). In this review we will focus on its prevalence, associated vulnerability factors, clinical manifestations, possible etiological factors and its prognosis. Methods A bibliographic search was carried out in the PubMed database selecting those articles that approached the subject of comorbidity between AN and DD. The search was limited to articles published from January 1990 to December 2021. Results Of the 1891 abstracts reviewed, 33 studies met inclusion criteria. The prevalence of this comorbidity was extremely variable between studies, which exposed their heterogeneity. As to symptomatology this comorbidity presents itself with more severity, greater expression of psychological traits and greater cognitive impairment. Certain personality traits are postulated as vulnerability factors. Genetic factors such as neurochemicals seem to be involved in its pathogenesis. Conclusion The comorbidity between DD and ED have important influence in its symptomatic expression, severity and prognosis. Some of the analyzed studies provide consistent data, but there are others that are contradictory. It would be necessary to increase the number of studies and use a unified methodology.
Objective The current study aimed to get an easy objective method to detect attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by investigating the simple inflammatory blood ratios platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PRL), neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) & the monocyte/lymphocyte ratio (MLR), for the sake of receiving early management to such cases and overcoming language affection as a comorbid symptom. Methods This study was conducted on two groups: Group 1 (SG) consisted of 70 ADHD children who had delayed language development (DLD), freshly diagnosed, according to DSM-V criteria, and those patients were not on medical treatment. Group 2 healthy group (HG) consisted of 44 healthy control normal children that were both physically and mentally free of the same socio-demographic characters of the first group. Results The PLR, NLR and MLR, were significantly higher in the ADHD group than the healthy control group (HG) group, although the simple blood indices were average. Conclusion Inflammation has a role as a comorbid cause of ADHD. Simple blood inflammatory mediators may be used as comorbid factors in ADHD. This study explained that the language abilities must be taken in consideration when assessing children with ADHD. The screening tools for inflammatory markers are important when dealing with ADHD children with/ without delayed language development (DLD). Also, working memory assessment is mandatory in ADHD with DLD to assign a special program in language therapy for each child.
Objective To explore the impact of the participation of patients with chronic mental illness in health promotion activities on their physical, psychological, and social functions. Methods This study included inpatient with chronic mental illness from a hospital in Eastern Taiwan. According to the experimental research design, the selected subjects were randomly divided into a health promotion group and a control group, with 60 people in each group. The health promotion team conducts health promotion activities twice a week, each for approximately 50 minutes, over the course of eight weeks (16 times in total). The measurement instrument adopts the Adult Mental Health Scale (AMHS) scale. Five experts and scholars in related fields are invited to conduct expert validity. Results Using independent sample t-tests to analyze the changes in the two groups after 8 weeks, the physical, psychological and social problems of the health promotion group were significantly improved compared with the control group. Conclusion Health promotion activities can alleviate the physical illness, anxiety, irritability, depression, and social distress of chronic hospitalized mental patients, and can also increase their positive and optimistic mood. It can provide chronic mental health care institutions to plan patients’ physical activities or exercises.
Impairments of Social Interaction in Depressive Disorder
Impairments of Social Interaction in Depressive Disorder
Erhan Akinci,Max-Oskar Wieser,Simon Vanscheidt,Shirin Diop,Vera Flasbeck,Burhan Akinci,Cora Stiller,Georg Juckel,Paraskevi Mavrogiorgou
Psychiatry Investigation 제19권 제3호/ 2022
178-189 (12 pages)
의약학>정신과학
초록보기
Objective Despite the numerous findings on the altered emotion recognition and dysfunctional social interaction behavior of depressive patients, a lot of the relationships are not clearly clarified. Methods In this pilot study, 20 depressive patients (mean±SD, 38.4±14.2) and 20 healthy subjects (mean±SD, 38.9±15.3) (each in dyads) were videographed. We then analyzed their social interaction behavior and emotion processing in terms of emotion recognition, their own emotional experience, and the expression of emotions under the conditions of a semi-structured experimental paradigm. Results Patients showed more significant impairment regarding the dimensions of social interaction behavior (i.e., attention, interest, and activity) and their interaction behavior was characterized by neutral affectivity, silence, and avoidance of direct eye contact. This interactive behavioral style was statistically related to depressive psychopathology. There were no differences concerning emotion recognition. Conclusion Impairments of non-verbal and verbal social interaction behavior of depressive patients seem to be less associated with disturbances of basic skills of emotion recognition.
Objective This study aimed to investigate the role of apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele to the incidence of dementia and cognitive decline in a cohort of a Korean community. Methods From a community-based dementia-free cohort, 357 participants were genotyped. Participants underwent 2 cognitive assessments separated by a hiatus between 6 to 7 years and were diagnosed as healthy control (n=297), Alzheimer’s disease (AD) (n=44), and other dementia (n=16) at the second assessment. Incidence risk and onset age of disease according to APOE ε4 presence were analyzed in AD and other dementia. Differences in cognitive decline rate depending on APOE ε4 were also examined across all groups. Results The relative risks and onset age of dementia were not different by the presence of the APOE ε4 allele. Cognitive decline was more prominent in the presence of APOE ε4 allele (score change=7.4) than non-presence (score change=3.1), and this interaction was significant only in the AD group (F=10.51, p=0.003). Conclusion The APOE ε4 alleles can be a critical factor in predicting cognitive change for AD in the Korean community population but not in predicting AD incidence. This finding suggest that clinicians consider the presence of APOE ε4 allele examining patients with rapid declining dementia.
Development of the Korea-Polyenvironmental Risk Score for Psychosis
Development of the Korea-Polyenvironmental Risk Score for Psychosis
Eun-Jin Jeon,Shi-Hyun Kang,Yan-Hong Piao,Sung-Wan Kim,Jung-Jin Kim,Bong-Ju Lee,Je-Chun Yu,Kyu-Young Lee,Seung-Hee Won,Seung-Hwan Lee,Seung-Hyun Kim,Eui-Tae Kim,Clara Tammy Kim,Dominic Oliver,Paolo Fusar-Poli,Fatima Zahra Rami,Young-Chul Chung
Psychiatry Investigation 제19권 제3호/ 2022
197-206 (10 pages)
의약학>정신과학
초록보기
Objective Comprehensive understanding of polyenvironmental risk factors for the development of psychosis is important. Based on a review of related evidence, we developed the Korea Polyenvironmental Risk Score (K-PERS) for psychosis. We investigated whether the K-PERS can differentiate patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) from healthy controls (HCs). Methods We reviewed existing tools for measuring polyenvironmental risk factors for psychosis, including the Maudsley Environmental Risk Score (ERS), polyenviromic risk score (PERS), and Psychosis Polyrisk Score (PPS). Using odds ratios and relative risks for Western studies and the “population proportion” (PP) of risk factors for Korean data, we developed the K-PERS, and compared the scores thereon between patients with SSDs and HCs. In addition, correlation was performed between the K-PERS and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Results We first constructed the “K-PERS-I,” comprising five factors based on the PPS, and then the “K-PERS-II” comprising six factors based on the ERS. The instruments accurately predicted participants’ status (case vs. control). In addition, the K-PERS-I and -II scores exhibited significant negative correlations with the negative symptom factor score of the PANSS. Conclusion The K-PERS is the first comprehensive tool developed based on PP data obtained from Korean studies that measures polyenvironmental risk factors for psychosis. Using pilot data, the K-PERS predicted patient status (SSD vs. HC). Further research is warranted to examine the relationship of K-PERS scores with clinical outcomes of psychosis and schizophrenia.
Objective We aimed to develop a Korean version of the Family Accommodation Scale-Self-Rated (FAS-SR), to investigate its reliability and validity and to study the clinical correlates of family accommodation in families with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) patient. Methods The FAS-SR was translated into Korean under the original author’s supervision. Forty-two patients with OCD and their closest relatives participated. The internal consistency was estimated using Cronbach’s alpha and the split half method. Convergent and divergent validity were identified by measuring with other clinical variables. Test-retest reliability was also calculated. Results The reliability analyses showed that Korean version of the FAS-SR demonstrated excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha= 0.91) and test-retest reliability (Intraclass correlation coefficient=0.93). It showed good convergent validity when simultaneously assessed OCD symptom severity, global functioning and relative’s psychological distress. Conclusion The findings suggest that Korean version of the FAS-SR is a reliable and valid tool for assessing family accommodation in Korean patients with OCD in both research and clinical settings.
Objective The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effect of methylphenidate (MPH) on height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) in drug-naive children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) over 24 months. The secondary objective was to investigate whether the age of MPH initiation and sex act as risk factors for growth retardation. Methods A total of 82 patients with ADHD were included. Weight, height, and BMI were measured at baseline and every 6 months up to 24 months. Weight, height, and BMI data were converted to z-scores and analyzed using two-way repeated-measures ANOVA and multiple linear regression. Results The z-score of height, weight and BMI decreased from the baseline values. The z-scores of height were at baseline 0.002; 6 months -0.100; 12 months -0.159; 18 months -0.159; 24 months -0.186. The z-scores of weight were at baseline 0.104; 6 months -0.155; 12 months -0.256; 18 months -0.278; 24 months -0.301. Here were no age and sex differences of height, weight, and BMI. Conclusion The use of MPH was associated with attenuation of weight and height gain rates in children and adolescents with ADHD.
Effect of Screen Time on Physical and Mental Health and Eating Habits During COVID-19 Lockdown in Lebanon
Effect of Screen Time on Physical and Mental Health and Eating Habits During COVID-19 Lockdown in Lebanon
Atifa Nazih Kamaleddine,Hiba Abdallah Antar,Bayan Tarek Abou Ali,Sajida Fawaz Hammoudi,Joohee Lee,Taeyeop Lee,Soo Young Bhang,Seockhoon Chung,Pascale Salameh
Psychiatry Investigation 제19권 제3호/ 2022
220-228 (9 pages)
의약학>정신과학
초록보기
Objective This study aimed to explore whether screen time and the screen type impacted various health aspects of children, including physical activity (PA), sleep quality, and eating habits. Additionally, we investigated whether children’s eating behavior while using electronic devices affects their physical and mental health. Methods We conducted an online survey asking for screen use (duration, type, and purpose), PA, eating habits, sleep problems, and level of depression. The participants were children between the ages of 3 and 7 years, and the survey was answered by the participants’ parents from March 3 to March 20, 2021. Results A screen time of ≥2 h in children was associated with various clinical characteristics, such as body mass index (BMI), sleep problems, depression, decreased PA, and unusual eating habits. Children’s food eating behavior while using electronic devices was predicted by a total screen time ≥2 h, smartphone screen time ≥2 h, sleep problems, owning electronic devices, and eating unhealthy food. Conclusion There was an interplay among children’s PAs, eating behaviors, depression, sleep problems, and screen time in this pandemic era. Therefore, guiding children on the correct use of electronic devices and helping them eat healthy are paramount during this COVID-19 pandemic.
Objective Among various causes of insomnia, stress is the most common and representative cause. Insomnia is also known to negatively affect the quality of life (QoL). The objective of this study was to explore the effect of stress on QoL and the mediating role of insomnia symptoms in the relationship between stress and QoL. Methods In this study, the mediating effect of insomnia symptoms on the relationship between stress and QoL was analyzed by enrolling 3,714 participants from the Ansung and Ansan cohorts of the Korea Association Resource project from 2001 to 2004. These cohort participants were asked about how much they felt stressed during their everyday life. Insomnia symptoms were evaluated by asking participants whether they had trouble sleeping such as difficulty in falling asleep, disrupted sleep, and early morning awakening due to the lack of a validated questionnaire for this cohort. QoL was evaluated using the World Health Organization QoL Scale Brief Version. Results In total, stress was positively associated with insomnia symptoms, which in turn predicted QoL. The same result could be derived from subgroup analysis according to sex, and it was confirmed that insomnia symptoms acted as a mediating factor more significantly in female than in male. Conclusion In this study, insomnia symptoms were confirmed to act as a significant mediating factor between stress and QoL, suggesting that insomnia symptoms should be actively identified and controlled to alleviate the negative effect of stress on QoL in clinical practice.
Objective In this study, it is aimed to investigate the relationship between the oxytocin level and the rejection sensitivity, childhood mental traumas, and attachment styles in patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Methods Participants between the ages of 18–30 were included in the study. The patient group consists of 31 participants and the healthy control group consists of 31 participants. Sociodemographic/Clinical Variables Questionnaire, Relationship Scales Questionnaire, Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were administered to the participants included in the study. Serum oxytocin levels of the participants were measured using the Elisa method. Results The oxytocin levels were found to be significantly lower in patients with BPD than in healthy control subjects, whereas the rejection sensitivity and childhood traumas were found to be significantly higher. No difference was found between the patient and control groups in terms of attachment styles, yet it was determined that there may be differences between the oxytocin levels of the BPD patients according to the attachment styles the patients have. Conclusion In conclusion, the findings of this study revealed that the rejection sensitivity in BPD patients is not associated with oxytocin levels and childhood traumas, indicating the need to assess the BPD patients in terms of other biopsychosocial factors related to the etiopathogenesis of BPD.
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