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Psychiatry Investigation

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Karl Jaspers is a psychiatrist, philosopher, and humanist. In 1913, he published the General Psychopathology (GP; Allgemeine Psychopathologie), the first edition. Despite the passage of one hundred years after the GP was published, GP still has a potential value to present a phenomenological and comprehensive viewpoint for psychiatry to overcome Kraepelinian -biological absolutism. The philosophical backgrounds of a Jaspersian phenomenological sense have been related to both the transcendence and the immanence roots. Partly under the influence of a Husserlian distinction between the natural and phenomenological attitudes, a rigid distinction between explanation and understanding has been proposed as the proper epistemological method in Jaspers’ GP. Further, the fact that a distinction between process and development has been presented as the psychical phenomenon is understandable. The integrated and comprehensive viewpoint establishment for the state of “Babylonian confusion of tongues” in German psychiatry as well as the newly initiating phenomenological trend in psychiatry have been the legacies of Jaspers’ GP. Moreover, the common theoretical backgrounds may be shared by the Jaspersian sense and humanitarian approaches in Korean psychiatry. Also, the Jaspersian sense may help the current molecular psychiatry to have a chance to overcome its solipsism and limitations.
Objective: In this study, we examined the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief (PQ-B), a self-report screening instrument for clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR). Methods: A total of 3,400 middle, high school and college students participated, and 261 subjects with a PQ-B total score ≥3 completed both the PQ-B and the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to examine the psychometric properties of the PQ-B. Results A cut-off of 7 for the PQ-B total score and a cut-off of 22 for the PQ-B distress score showed the best balance of sensitivity (72.2%, 77.8%) and specificity (71.4%, 75.0%). Conclusion The Korean version of the PQ-B showed good reliability and validity for predicting prodromal risk symptoms in the community population.
Objective: Smartphone use is pervasive among youth in Japan, as with many other countries, and is associated with spending time online and on social media anywhere at any time. This study aimed to test a Japanese version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version (SAS-SV) among Japanese college students. Methods: The subjects of this study were 602 college students in Japan. The study questionnaire consisted of questions about demographics (age, gender etc.), possession of a smartphone, internet use [length of internet use on weekdays and weekend, favorite social networking service (SNS) etc.], Young’s Internet Addiction Test (IAT), and the Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version (SAS-SV) translated into Japanese. Results: There was a total of 573 respondents (180 male, 393 female) who completed the questionnaire (mean 19.3±1.3 years). LINE was the most popular social media platform (52.0%) followed by Twitter (36.3%). The overall Internet Addiction Test (IAT) score was 45.3±13.2, with 4.5% classified as having severe addiction (IAT ≥70). The mean SAS-SV scores were 24.4±10.0 for males and 26.8±9.9 for females. Based on proposed cutoff scores, 22.8% of males and 28.0% of females screened positive for smartphone addiction. The total scores of the SAS-SV and the IAT was correlated significantly. Conclusion: As the number of smartphone users becomes higher, problems related to smartphone use also become more serious. Our results suggest that the Japanese version of SAS-SV may assist in early detection of problematic use of smartphones.
Self-Forgiveness Moderates the Effects of Depression on Suicidality
Self-Forgiveness Moderates the Effects of Depression on Suicidality
Minjee Jung,Yeonsoo Park,Seung Yeon Baik,Cho Long Kim,Hyang Sook Kim,Seung-Hwan Lee
Psychiatry Investigation 제16권 제2호/ 2019
121-129 (9 pages)
의약학>정신과학
초록보기
Objective: Not all depressive individuals are suicidal. An increasing body of studies has examined forgiveness, especially self-forgiveness, as a protective factor of suicide based on that suicide is often accompanied by negative self-perceptions. However, less has been studied on how different subtypes of forgiveness (i.e., forgiveness-of-self, forgiveness-of-others and forgiveness-of-situations) could alleviate the effects of depression on suicide. Hence, this study examined forgiveness as a moderator of depression and suicidality. Methods: 305 participants, consisted of 87 males and 218 females, were included in the study. The mean age was 41.05 (SD: 14.48; range: 19–80). Depression, anxiety, and forgiveness were measured through self-report questionnaires, and suicidal risk was measured through a structuralized interview. Moderations were examined through hierarchical regression analyses. Results: Depression positively correlated with suicidality. Results of the hierarchical regression analysis indicated forgiveness as a moderator of depression on suicidality. Further analysis indicated only forgiveness-of-self as a significant moderator; the effects of forgiveness-of-others and forgiveness-of-situation were not significant. Conclusion: These findings suggest that forgiveness-of-self is essential in reducing of the effects of depression on suicidality. It is suggested that self-acceptance and the promotion of self-forgiveness should be considered as an important factor when developing suicide prevention strategies.
Development of Korean Disaster Mental Health Support Guidelines: Results of a Scoping Review and a Delphi Survey
Development of Korean Disaster Mental Health Support Guidelines: Results of a Scoping Review and a Delphi Survey
Sang Min Lee,Hee Young Lee,Mi Kyung Lee,Sunju Kim,Sorae Lee,Hae-Woo Lee,Eun Jin Park,Minyoung Sim,Jong-Woo Paik
Psychiatry Investigation 제16권 제2호/ 2019
130-138 (9 pages)
의약학>정신과학
초록보기
Objective: It is necessary to develop new guidelines to delineate the best ways of providing psychosocial care to ensure mental health following a disaster. Methods: This study applied the scoping review method as a means of establishing evidence-based guidelines for disaster mental health services. A total of 440 literatures were selected through a scoping review of 20,864 documents. Twenty-three recognized experts were invited to participate in the survey and a two-round online Delphi survey was conducted. Results: The concordance rate in the Delphi Round 1 was 95.1%. Six items were excluded and new items were formulated with experts’ suggestions. A total of 23 statements were slightly modified to clarify their meaning. In the Delphi Round 2, all items were met with consensus. The three items with the highest consensus among the experts were related to the protection of personal information and privacy. The item with the lowest consensus among experts was related to debriefing. Other items were related to establishing mental health support centers and suicide prevention activities. Conclusion: 140 items were developed through scoping reviews based on evidence-based methodology. These items were used to describe the disaster mental health support identified in Delphi. The guideline will provide a foundation for effective preparation and response in disaster situations.
Credibility Judgment Predictors for Child Sexual Abuse Reports in Forensic Psychiatric Evaluations
Credibility Judgment Predictors for Child Sexual Abuse Reports in Forensic Psychiatric Evaluations
Ling-Hsiang Wang,Yu-Yung Hung,Philip C. Chow,Che-Sheng Chu,Hsing-Jung Li,Ti Lu,Ching-Hong Tsai
Psychiatry Investigation 제16권 제2호/ 2019
139-144 (6 pages)
의약학>정신과학
초록보기
Objective We intended to analyze the credibility judgment in written forensic psychiatric reports of child sexual abuse registered in Southern Taiwan. Methods Ninety-six cases of child sexual abuse between August 2010 and October 2017 encountered in two hospitals were analyzed. The results in these reports were categorized into credible and non-credible. We identified the factors that distinguished between the two groups in bivariate analyses using chi-square test. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine whether the factors that significantly correlated in the bivariate analyses were independent predictors of credible judgments. Results Among 96 cases, 70 (73%) were judged as credible. Consistent testimonies of children (odds ratio=40.82) and multiple abuse events (odds ratio=6.05) were positive variables independently related to the sexual abuse allegations judged as credible. Conclusion The number of allegations judged as credible in this study was slightly higher than that reported in other studies. Our findings about predictors for credible cases are not in line with those reported previously. Due to the differences in resources of the cases and backgrounds of the evaluators among multiple studies, direct comparisons with previous studies must be treated with caution.
Objective: This study aimed to clarify the role of acute alcohol use and alcohol use disorder in individuals exhibiting suicidal behaviors, including repetition of suicide attempt. Methods: Data pertaining to 691 suicide attempters who had visited an emergency center and had been followed-up from 2010 to 2015 were gathered. Participants were categorized into following three groups according to alcohol use pattern at the time of the suicide attempt: 1) suicide attempters with neither alcohol use disorder nor acute alcohol consumption (NAU), 2) suicide attempters who had used alcohol during the suicide attempt but did not have alcohol use disorder (AAU), and 3) suicide attempters with alcohol use disorder (AUD). Group comparisons and multivariate Cox proportional models for suicidal behavior were used for statistical analysis. Results: AUD have been shown to have lower lethality of suicide attempt but higher risk of suicide reattempts in the future. Furthermore, positive relationships between suicide reattempts and AUD persisted throughout the longer period than other groups. Conclusion: Suicide attempters with AUD should be considered a high-risk group for suicide reattempts in future, and this group should be followed-up for a longer period with specialized care program.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of PTSD among North Korean defectors who visited the National Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea over a period of approximately 10 years by examining their medical records and to examine differences in the medical service usage patterns of patients with and without PTSD. Methods: Data from North Korean defectors who used outpatient services at the National Medical Center during a period of 10 years and 3 months (January 1 2006 to February 28, 2016) were analyzed. The general characteristics of the defectors were analyzed by frequency analyses, and descriptive statistics were generated. Additionally, independent t-tests and chi square analyses were performed to examine differences between PTSD patients and those without PTSD. Linear regression analysis was performed to examine factors affecting the mental health of North Korean defectors suffering from PTSD. Results: This study assessed the correlations between PTSD, the average number of outpatient visits, and the total revenue. The regression analysis showed a relationship between PTSD and the average number of outpatient visits. There was also a correlation between PTSD and total revenue. The average number of outpatient visits was 41.8 for PTSD patients, whereas it was 33.2 for those without PTSD. The total revenue visit was 953.6 USD for PTSD sufferers and 231.1 USD for those without PTSD. Conclusion: This study found that the majority of North Korean defectors visit psychiatry departments, and that PTSD patients use outpatient services more frequently and have higher total revenue than those without PTSD. Additionally, patients with PTSD used a greater variety of medical services. Considering the high medical care expenses of North Korean defectors residing in South Korea, future investigations should examine the medical service usage patterns of such patients, especially those diagnosed with PTSD, in greater detail.
Objective: Some antidepressants have been implicated as risk factors for QT prolongation, which is a predictor of sudden cardiac death. However, the QT interval is considered an imperfect biomarker for proarrhythmic risk. Therefore, we reevaluated the risk of sudden cardiac death due to antidepressants using improved methods, namely, QT dispersion (QTD), T wave peak-to-end interval (Tp-e), and Tp-e/QT ratio. Methods: We compared the effects of antidepressants on QTc (QT/RR1/3), QTD, Tp-e, and Tp-e/QT ratio in 378 patients with mood disorder. We also compared each index between 165 healthy controls and 215 randomly selected age-matched patients. Results: Age (p<0.01), sex (p<0.05), tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) use (p<0.05), and clomipramine (p<0.01) and mianserin (p<0.05) use in particular, significantly associated with a prolonged QTc. We also found that age (p<0.01), TCA use (p<0.05), and clomipramine (p<0.01) and mianserin (p<0.05) use in particular, significantly prolonged QTD. However, there was no correlation between each variable and Tp-e or Tp-e/QT ratio. Significant differences in QTc and QTD were found between the patients and healthy controls. Conclusion: From our results, prediction of risk of sudden cardiac death by QTD, Tp-e, or Tp-e/QT ratio was inconsistent. Increased QTD may be more suitable for predicting sudden cardiac death due to antidepressants.
Visuo-Haptic-Based Multimodal Feedback Virtual Reality Solution to Improve Anxiety Symptoms: A Proof-of-Concept Study
Visuo-Haptic-Based Multimodal Feedback Virtual Reality Solution to Improve Anxiety Symptoms: A Proof-of-Concept Study
Young Im Kim,Seo-Yeon Jung,Seulki Min,Eunbi Seol,Sungho Seo,Ji-Won Hur,Dooyoung Jung,Heon-Jeong Lee,Sungkil Lee,Gerard J. Kim,Chung-Yean Cho,Seungmoon Choi,Seung-Moo Lee,Chul-Hyun Cho
Psychiatry Investigation 제16권 제2호/ 2019
167-171 (5 pages)
의약학>정신과학
초록보기
With proper guidance, virtual reality (VR) can provide psychiatric therapeutic strategies within a simulated environment. The visuo-haptic- based multimodal feedback VR solution has been developed to improve anxiety symptoms through immersive experience and feedback. A proof-of-concept study was performed to investigate this VR solution. Nine subjects recently diagnosed with panic disorder were recruited, and seven of them eventually completed the trial. Two VR sessions were provided to each subject. Depression, anxiety, and VR sickness were evaluated before and after each session. Although there was no significant effect of the VR sessions on psychiatric symptoms, we could observe a trend of improvement in depression, anxiety, and VR sickness. The VR solution was effective in relieving subjective anxiety, especially in panic disorder without comorbidity. VR sickness decreased over time. This study is a new proof-of-concept trial to evaluate the therapeutic effect of VR solutions on anxiety symptoms using visuo-haptic-based multimodal feedback simultaneously.
Acute Psychotic Syndrome in a Male Adolescent with Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase Deficiency
Acute Psychotic Syndrome in a Male Adolescent with Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase Deficiency
Konstantinos Kontoangelos,Helen Lazaratou,Marina Economou,Dimitris Dikeos,Charalambos Papageorgiou
Psychiatry Investigation 제16권 제2호/ 2019
172-173 (2 pages)
의약학>정신과학
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