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Psychiatry Investigation

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Recent Updates on Electro-Convulsive Therapy in Patients with Depression
Recent Updates on Electro-Convulsive Therapy in Patients with Depression
Mi Jin Park,Hyewon Kim,Eun Ji Kim,Vidal Yook,In Won Chung,Sang Min Lee,Hong Jin Jeon
Psychiatry Investigation 제18권 제1호/ 2021
1-10 (10 pages)
의약학>정신과학
초록보기
Objective Electro-convulsive therapy (ECT) has been established as a treatment modality for patients with treatment-resistant depression and with some specific subtypes of depression. This narrative review intends to provide psychiatrists with the latest findings on the use of ECT in depression, devided into total eight sub-topics. Methods We searched PubMed for English-language articles using combined keywords and tried to analyze journals published from 1995-2020. Results Pharmacotherapy such as antidepressants or maintenance ECT is more effective than a placebo as prevention of recurrence after ECT. The use of ECT in treatment-resistant depression, depressed patients with suicidal risks, elderly depression, bipolar depression, psychotic depression, and depression during pregnancy or postpartum have therapeutic benefits. As possible mechanisms of ECT, the role of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and other findings in the field of neurophysiology, neuro-immunology, and neurogenesis are also supported. Conclusion ECT is evolving toward reducing cognitive side effects and maximizing therapeutic effects. If robust evidence for ECT through randomized controlled studies are more established and the mechanism of ECT gets further clarified, the scope of its use in the treatment of depression will be more expanded in the future.
Objective Many patients suffer from dementia in its most common form, Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In this study, the levels of IL-1β, TGF-β and CRP, which are involved in the inflammatory response in Alzheimer’s disease and its mild cognitive impairment (MCI), were measured and analyzed. Methods Seventy nine subjects participated in this study (mean age: 75.56 years, female: 54.3%, AD: 26, MCI: 28, normal: 25). The overall cognitive function of the subjects and the severity of the disease stage were assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-K), the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS) and the Geriatric Depression Scale-Korean (GDS-K). Results It was observed that patients with AD had significantly higher levels of IL-1β and TGF-β than the patients with MCI and normal controls. In addition, the MCI group showed a statistically significantly higher TGF-β concentration than the normal group. Conclusion These results suggest that IL-1β and TGF-β may be useful biological markers for patients with Alzheimer’s disease.
Objective To investigate clinical and psychological characteristics of young men referred for a psychiatric evaluation due to expected unsuitability for military service and identify their heterogeneous subgroups based on the profiles of MMPI-2 and TCI. Methods We conducted a latent profile analysis of 348 men using MMPI-2 and TCI and then a comparative analysis of four latent classes in relation to sociodemographic, clinical, and IQ variables. Results We identified four classes with distinct clinical and psychological features: Class 1 (nonclinical: n=68), Class 2 (internalized: n=129), Class 3 (externalized: n=60), Class 4 (confused: n=91). Class 1 showed no significant psychiatric symptoms and relatively adaptive temperament and characteristics. Class 2 showed relatively higher harm avoidance and introverted traits indicating vulnerability to internalizing disorder. Class 3 was related to higher novelty seeking, impulsivity, and bipolarity. Class 4 showed the most severe clinical symptoms including psychotic experiences with extremely unstable temperament and immature personality. In total, 50-70% participants reported clinically significant depression, anxiety, and suicidal idea. Participants showed lower processing speed index (M=85.9, SD=16.6) than the general population. Conclusion The results suggest that clinical conceptualization and therapeutic intervention considering distinctive features of young men with adaptive problems related to military service are needed.
Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depression and suicidal ideation among older Korean adults and the predictors of suicidal ideation. Methods We analyzed data from 5,604 Koreans aged 65 or older collected by the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2012-2016, an annual national, cross-sectional, epidemiologic study of the Korean population. A chi-square test was used to assess differences in socio-demographic characteristics by suicidal ideation. Psychological variables, self-rated physical health, and the five dimensions of the Korean version of the EQ-5D (EuroQoL) were compared between four subgroups categorized according to the presence/absence of suicidal ideation and depression. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the predictive power of health-related quality of life variables, as well as physical and psychological factors regarding suicidal ideation. Results Overall, 11.5% of the sample reported suicidal ideation, and 20.0% of the suicidal ideation group were diagnosed with depression. Respondents with suicidal ideation had significantly lower levels of health-related quality of life than those without suicidal ideation. EQ-5D self-control (OR=1.42), anxiety/depression (OR=2.32), depression (OR=2.07), and self-rated physical health (OR=1.36) were found to significantly predict suicidal ideation. Conclusion Suicidal ideation without depression was prevalent among older Koreans. Self-control, anxiety/depression of EQ-5D, selfrated physical health, and depression predicted suicidal ideation. Interventions to screen older Koreans for early detection of suicide risk and prevention strategies should consider evaluating each EQ-5D dimension.
Risk of Suicide Attempt after Thyroidectomy: A Nationwide Population Study in South Korea
Risk of Suicide Attempt after Thyroidectomy: A Nationwide Population Study in South Korea
Hyewon Kim,Yuwon Kim,Myung-Hee Shin,Kwan Woo Choi,Man Ki Chung,Hong Jin Jeon
Psychiatry Investigation 제18권 제1호/ 2021
39-50 (12 pages)
의약학>정신과학
초록보기
Objective To investigate the association between thyroidectomy and suicide attempt. Methods A nationwide population-based electronic medical records database of South Korea between January 1, 2009 and June 30, 2016 was used to investigate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of suicide attempts and probable suicide attempts before and after thyroidectomy using a self-controlled case series design. Results In 2,986 patients who attempted suicide or probable suicide, the IRRs of suicidal behaviors during risk periods one year before and after thyroidectomy were investigated. Generally, after thyroidectomy, there was no increase in IRR compared to the non-risk period. When data were analyzed according to thyroidectomy type, after partial thyroidectomy, IRR increased up to 1.43 (95% CI: 1.03-1.98, p=0.032) in the days 91-181 period. In the subgroup with major depressive disorder (MDD), the IRR increased up to 1.74 (95% CI: 1.21-2.51, p=0.003) before thyroidectomy, and increased up to 1.67 (95% CI: 1.16-2.41, p=0.006) after thyroidectomy. Conclusion Although the general risk of suicide attempt was not increased after thyroidectomy, patients with MDD showed increased risk of suicide attempt before and after thyroidectomy. These results suggest that suicidality should be evaluated when depressive symptoms are present in patients who have undergone thyroidectomy.
Network Analysis of the Symptoms of Depressive Disorders Over the Course of Therapy: Changes in Centrality Measures
Network Analysis of the Symptoms of Depressive Disorders Over the Course of Therapy: Changes in Centrality Measures
Seon-Cheol Park,Yaeseul Kim,Kiwon Kim,Young Sup Woo,Jung-Bum Kim,Eun Young Jang,Hwa-Young Lee,Hyeon-Woo Yim,Byung-Joo Ham,Jae-Min Kim,Yong Chon Park
Psychiatry Investigation 제18권 제1호/ 2021
48-58 (11 pages)
의약학>정신과학
초록보기
Objective Network analysis can be used in terms of a novel psychopathological approach for depressive syndrome. We aimed to estimate the successive network structures of depressive symptoms in patients with depressive disorder using data from the Clinical Research Center for Depression study. Methods We enrolled 1,152 South Korean adult patients with depressive disorders who were beginning treatment for first-onset or recurrent depressive episodes. We examined the network structure of the severities of the items on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) at baseline and at weeks 2, 12, 25, and 52. The node strength centrality of all the HAMD items at baseline and at week 2, 12, 25, and 52 in terms of network analysis. Results In the severity networks, the anxiety (psychic) item was the most centrally situated in the initial period (baseline and week 2), while loss of weight was the most centrally situated item in the later period (weeks 25 and 52). In addition, the number of strong edges (i.e., edges representing strong correlations) increased in the late period compared to the initial period. Conclusion Our findings support a period-specific and symptom-focused therapeutic approach that can provide complementary information to the unidimensional total HAMD score.
Objective The present study aimed to explore how the patterns of interaction between stress and positive resources differ according to the severity of depression and which resources play the most important role among the various positive resources. Methods The study included 1,806 people who had visited a health screening center for a mental health check-up to evaluate the levels of perceived stress, positive resources, and depressive symptoms. The participants were divided into a depressive group (n=1,642, mean age 50.60, female 68%) and a non-depressive group (n=164, mean age 48.42, female 66.6%). We conducted hierarchical regression analyses and simple slope analyses to examine the interaction between perceived stress and positive resources. Results The interaction between perceived stress and optimism was significantly associated with depression in non-depressive groups. In depressive groups, the interactions between five types of positive resources (optimism, purpose in life, self-control, social support and care) and perceived stress were all significantly related to depression. Conclusion Interventions that promote optimism can be helpful for preventing inevitable stress from leading to depression. A deficiency in positive resources may be a factor in aggravating depression in stressful situations for people reporting moderate to severe depressive symptoms.
Development of Random Forest Algorithm Based Prediction Model of Alzheimer’s Disease Using Neurodegeneration Pattern
Development of Random Forest Algorithm Based Prediction Model of Alzheimer’s Disease Using Neurodegeneration Pattern
JeeYoung Kim,Minho Lee,Min Kyoung Lee,Sheng-Min Wang,Nak-Young Kim,Dong Woo Kang,Yoo Hyun Um,Hae-Ran Na,Young Sup Woo,Chang Uk Lee,Won-Myong Bahk,Donghyeon Kim,Hyun Kook Lim
Psychiatry Investigation 제18권 제1호/ 2021
69-81 (13 pages)
의약학>정신과학
초록보기
Objective Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia and the prevalence rapidly increased as the elderly population increased worldwide. In the contemporary model of AD, it is regarded as a disease continuum involving preclinical stage to severe dementia. For accurate diagnosis and disease monitoring, objective index reflecting structural change of brain is needed to correctly assess a patient’s severity of neurodegeneration independent from the patient’s clinical symptoms. The main aim of this paper is to develop a random forest (RF) algorithm-based prediction model of AD using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods We evaluated diagnostic accuracy and performance of our RF based prediction model using newly developed brain segmentation method compared with the Freesurfer’s which is a commonly used segmentation software. Results Our RF model showed high diagnostic accuracy for differentiating healthy controls from AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using structural MRI, patient characteristics, and cognitive function (HC vs. AD 93.5%, AUC 0.99; HC vs. MCI 80.8%, AUC 0.88). Moreover, segmentation processing time of our algorithm (<5 minutes) was much shorter than of Freesurfer’s (6-8 hours). Conclusion Our RF model might be an effective automatic brain segmentation tool which can be easily applied in real clinical practice.
Objective Approximately half of patients with cancer have comorbidities, such as adjustment disorder, major depressive disorder, and delirium. Radiotherapy can cause psychological problems, e.g., the fear of treatment and its side effects, anxiety, depression, and social isolation. Health-related quality of life (QoL) must be determined to evaluate the effectiveness of cancer treatment. We analyzed the clinical, psychological, and sociodemographic factors influencing the QoL of patients with cancer who were undergoing radiotherapy. Methods Twenty-six patients undergoing radiotherapy (10 male, 16 female) were included. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected prior to radiotherapy. Psychosocial factors were assessed by self-reported questionnaires before, immediately after, and 3 months after radiotherapy. A multivariate regression analysis identified factors affecting QoL at each time point. Results Patients’ diagnoses were breast, cervical, prostate, endometrial, rectal, hypopharyngeal, laryngeal, liver, gallbladder, esophageal, ovarian, lung, and skin cancers. Before radiotherapy, better resilience was significantly associated with a higher QoL score (R2=0.199, p=0.033). Immediately after radiotherapy, financial difficulty was significantly associated with a lower QoL score (R2=0.274, p=0.010). Three months after radiotherapy, the presence of chronic disease (R2=0.398, p=0.002) and the severity of nausea and vomiting were significantly associated with a lower QoL score (R2=0.278, p=0.014). Conclusion Resilience, financial difficulty, the presence of chronic diseases, and the severity of nausea and vomiting significantly influenced the QoL of patients with cancer who were undergoing radiotherapy. Factors affecting QoL varied at each time point. Thus, patients with cancer should undergo regular mental health assessments, including assessments of QoL. Multidimensional (physical, psychological, and social) approaches and individualized time-based interventions are needed to improve the QoL of cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy.
Objective Gambling disorder (GD) patients have a higher suicide risk compared to the general population. The present study investigates the suicide-related risk factors of GD patients by analyzing GD diagnosis-related symptoms and suicide-related behaviors of subjects. Methods This study investigated which symptoms among GD diagnosis criteria are related to suicide risk in 142 patients diagnosed with GD. To analyze the relationship between GD symptoms and suicidal ideation and suicide attempt, the odds ratio (OR) was determined through multivariate logistic regression. Results The number of symptoms was significantly higher in the subjects who had suicidal ideation group and attempt group. In the cases of past suicide attempts, responses to withdrawal and escape questions were significantly higher; in the cases of ongoing suicidal ideation, responses to negative consequences and bailout questions were significantly higher. When depression was corrected, the ‘bailout’ item was, indicating that ‘bailout’ increased suicidal ideation (OR=4.937, 95% CI=1.009-24.164). In the suicide attempt group, ‘relieve’ item may increase suicide attempt (OR=6.978, 95% CI=1.300-35.562). Conclusion Past suicide attempts in GD patients correlated with withdrawal symptoms, and financial problem correlated with suicidal ideation. This suggests that evaluating suicide risk is important when evaluating GD patients, and evaluation of financial problems is important for GD patients with suicide risks.
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