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Psychiatry Investigation

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A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Nonpharmacological Interventions for Moderate to Severe Dementia
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Nonpharmacological Interventions for Moderate to Severe Dementia
Riyoung Na,Ji-hye Yang,Yusung Yeom,You Joung Kim,Seonjeong Byun,Kiwon Kim,Ki Woong Kim
Psychiatry Investigation 제16권 제5호/ 2019
325-335 (11 pages)
의약학>정신과학
초록보기
Objective: Due to limited efficacy of medications, non-pharmacological interventions (NPI) are frequently co-administered to people with moderate to severe dementia (PWMSD). This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effects of NPI on activities of daily living (ADL), behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), and cognition and quality of life (QoL) of PWMSD. Methods: A literature search was conducted in the following databases: Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, Medline, CIHNAL, PsycINFO, KoreaMED, KMbase, and KISS. We conducted a meta-analysis on randomized controlled trials and used the generic inverse variance method with a fixed-effects model to calculate the standardized mean difference (SMD). The protocol had been registered (CRD42017058020). Results: Ten randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria of the current meta-analysis. NPI were effective in improving ADL [SMD=0.28, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.11–0.45] and reducing depression (SMD=-0.44, 95% CI=-0.70– -0.19). However, NPI were not effective in reducing agitation, anxiety, or overall, or improving cognitive function. In a subgroup analysis, music therapy was effective in reducing overall BPSD (SMD=-0.52, 95% CI=-0.90– -0.13). Conclusion: Albeit the number of studies was limited, NPI improved ADL and depression in PWMSD.
Long-Term Grey Matter Changes in First Episode Psychosis: A Systematic Review
Long-Term Grey Matter Changes in First Episode Psychosis: A Systematic Review
Ruth Gallardo-Ruiz,Benedicto Crespo-Facorro,Esther Setié,n-Suero,Diana Tordesillas-Gutierrez
Psychiatry Investigation 제16권 제5호/ 2019
336-345 (10 pages)
의약학>정신과학
초록보기
Objective: To determine possible progressive changes of the grey matter at the first stages of the schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and to determine what regions are involved in these changes. Methods: We searched the literature concerning studies on longitudinal changes in grey matter in first-episode psychosis using magnetic resonance imaging, especially studies with an interval between scans of more than a year. Only articles published before 2018 were searched. We selected 19 magnetic resonance imaging longitudinal studies that used different neuroimaging analysis techniques to study changes in cerebral grey matter in a group of patients with a first episode of psychosis. Results: Patients with first episode of psychosis showed a decrease over time in cortical grey matter compared with a group of control subjects in frontal, temporal (specifically in superior regions), parietal, and subcortical regions. In addition to the above, studies indicate that patients showed a grey matter decrease in cerebellum and lateral ventricles volume. Conclusion: The results suggest a decrease in grey matter in the years after the first episode of psychosis. Furthermore, the results of the studies showed consistency, regardless of the methods used in their analyses, as well as the time intervals between image collections.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the rates childhood traumatic experiences (CTEs) of schizophrenia patients and to examine relationship between childhood traumatic experiences, dissociation and psychotic symptoms. Methods: One hundred schizophrenia patients who had 5 or 5 points below in Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) and who were not in active psychotic episode and 50 healthy siblings who grew up in the same environment with the patients were included to the study. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV, Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms, Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), CGI-S, Global Assessment of Functioning Scale and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28) applied to the patients. Results: Childhood abuse subscales and DES scores were statistically higher in the patient group (p<0.001). We determined moderately significant positive correlation between CTQ-28 and DES. We determined moderately significant positive correlation between CTQ total scores and persecutory delusions, delusions of reference, ability to feel intimacy and closeness; relationship with friends and peers. Also, there was a significant positive correlation between persecutory delusions and CTQ-total, DES-total and all subscales of CTQ-28. Conclusion: Clinicians should inquire about CTEs to develop comprehensive formulations and treatment plans among schizophrenia.
Validity and Reliability of Cognitive Attentional Syndrome-1 Questionnaire
Validity and Reliability of Cognitive Attentional Syndrome-1 Questionnaire
Anıl Gü,ndü,z,İ,brahim Gü,ndoğ,muş,,Sencan Sertç,elik,Betü,l Hacer Engin,Aysel İ,ş,ler,Arif Ç,ipil,Hatice Gö,nü,l,Aliş,an Burak Yaş,ar,Mehmet Zihni Sungur
Psychiatry Investigation 제16권 제5호/ 2019
355-362 (8 pages)
의약학>정신과학
초록보기
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of Cognitive Attentional Syndrome-1 (CAS-1) questionnaire. Methods: 221 participants were included in the study who do not meet any psychiatric diagnosis. Participants were applied SCID I and II and filled CAS-1 scale, Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire-30 (MCQ-30), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) Scale, and Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ). Testing the reliability Cronbach’s alpha, item analysis and Item and total score correlation coefficients were applied. For testing structural validity, Confirmatory Factor Analysis was used, and for testing the content validity, the relationship between each item of CAS-1 and MCQ-30, BDI, BAI, GAD-7, PSWQ was examined. Results: The correlation reliability coefficients were statistically significant except for using alcohol/drugs as a coping mechanism. Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient of 16 items was 0.771 whereas, this ratio was 0.772 for the first eight items (CAS) and 0.685 for the last eight items (Metacognitive Beliefs) which showed that the internal consistency of CAS-1 was high. Structural and Content Validity of the scale was significant. Conclusion: The Turkish version of the CAS-1 was a reliable and valid measure to evaluate CAS in a Turkish population.
Objective: This study aims to examine the parallel multiple mediators of depressive symptoms and sleep quality in the relations between stress and physical health-related quality of life (PHQOL)/mental health-related quality of life (MHQOL) among the women in late pregnancy. Methods: Of 1120 pregnant women participated in the cross-sectional study which consisted of Perceived Stress Scale, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and MOS 12-item Short Form Health Survey. Parallel multiple mediator models were used to analyze the relations between stress, depressive symptoms, sleep quality and PHQOL/MHQOL. Results: The effect of perceived stress on PHQOL was partially through the indirect path of sleep quality (β=-0.061). But in the model for MHQOL, depressive symptoms and sleep quality played parallel mediators, and the indirect path effect of depressive symptoms (β=-0.179) was higher than sleep quality (β=-0.029). Conclusion: The findings contributed to the understanding about the influential mechanism of stress on PHQOL/MHQOL. And it reminded the importance of sleep quality and depressive symptoms for improving QOL in late pregnancy.
Objective: Biomarkers of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are crucial for early diagnosis and intervention, in which the identification of biomarkers in other areas of the body that represent the immature brain of children with ADHD is necessary. The present study aimed to find biomarkers of ADHD in the retina and assessed the relationship between macular thickness of the retina and cortical thickness of the brain in children with ADHD. Methods: Twelve children with ADHD and 13 control children were recruited for the study. To find ocular markers of ADHD, we investigated the correlation between clinical symptoms of ADHD assessed with the Korean ADHD Rating Scale (K-ARS), cortical thickness of the brain, and macular thickness measured with the mean thickness from the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS). Results: Children with ADHD showed increased macular thicknesses quantified as an ETDRS ring in both eyes, compared to control subjects. Moreover, the right inner ETDRS ring had a positive correlation with K-ARS scores. The ADHD group had an increased ratio of thickness of the right frontal lobe to that of the parietal cortex, compared with the control group. There were positive correlations between the means of the inner ETDRS ring (right) and the left paracentral/right isthmus cingulate thicknesses in the control group. However, there were negative correlations between the means of the inner ETDRS ring (right) and the left frontal pole/right pars triangularis thicknesses in the ADHD group. The results of both groups were at the uncorrected level. Conclusion: The different patterns of macular thickness might represent the immature cortical thickness of the brain in children with ADHD.
Polymorphisms of Ionotropic Glutamate Receptor-Related Genes and the Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder in a Chinese Population
Polymorphisms of Ionotropic Glutamate Receptor-Related Genes and the Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder in a Chinese Population
Xinyan Xie,Fang Hou,Li Li,Yanlin Chen,Lingfei Liu,Xiu Luo1, Huaiting Gu,Xin Li,Jiajia Zhang,Jianhua Gong,Ranran Song
Psychiatry Investigation 제16권 제5호/ 2019
379-385 (7 pages)
의약학>정신과학
초록보기
Objective: To evaluate the association of GRIK2 and NLGN1 with autism spectrum disorder in a Chinese population. Methods: We performed spatio-temporal expression analysis of GRIK2 and NLGN1 in the developing prefrontal cortex, and examined the expression of the genes in ASD cases and healthy controls using the GSE38322 data set. Following, we performed a case-control study in a Chinese population. Results: The analysis using the publicly available expression data showed that GRIK2 and NLGN1 may have a role in the development of human brain and contribute to the risk of ASD. Later genetic analysis in the Chinese population showed that the GRIK2 rs6922753 for the T allele, TC genotype and dominant model played a significant protective role in ASD susceptibility (respectively: OR=0.840, p=0.023; OR=0.802, p=0.038; OR=0.791, p=0.020). The NLGN1 rs9855544 for the G allele and GG genotype played a significant protective role in ASD susceptibility (respectively: OR=0.844, p=0.019; OR=0.717, p=0.022). After adjusting p values, the statistical significance was lost (p>0.05). Conclusion: Our results suggested that GRIK2 rs6922753 and NLGN1 rs9855544 might not confer susceptibility to ASD in the Chinese population.
Objective: Alcohol drinking can cause various psychiatric and medical diseases. Although women generally consume less alcohol than men, they may be at a greater risk for alcohol-related psychological distress. The aim of the current study is to evaluate whether the association between alcohol consumption and psychological distress, including stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation and the risks of psychological distress differ based on gender. Methods: The cross-sectional study included 31,657 participants (17,915 women and 13,742 men) from the 2010–2013 and 2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Alcohol drinking and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) levels were assessed for evaluating the amount of alcohol intake and alcohol-related problems. Self-perception of stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation were assessed for evaluating psychological distress. Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals for psychological distress were calculated using multiple logistic regression models. Results: The risks of psychological distress were not significantly associated with drinking level in both sexes. However, the risks of psychological distress were associated with an increase in AUDIT levels, and there were gender differences in the psychological consequences of alcohol-related problems. The association was more drastic in women, and women showed a significant association even though the severity of drinking problem was low with the exception of stress perception. Conclusion: The risks of psychological distress were associated with the severity of alcohol-related problems and women were more likely to be susceptible. Therefore, it is recommended that women even at low-risk for problematic drinking should be screened for psychological distress.
Examining Patterns of Polypharmacy in Bipolar Disorder: Findings from the REAP-BD, Korea
Examining Patterns of Polypharmacy in Bipolar Disorder: Findings from the REAP-BD, Korea
Kiwon Kim,Hyunju Yang,Euihyeon Na,Hoseon Lee,Ok-Jin Jang,Hyung-Jun Yoon,Hong Seok Oh,Byung-Joo Ham,Seon-Cheol Park,Shih-Ku Lin,Chay Hoon Tan,Naotaka Shinfuku,Yong Chon Park
Psychiatry Investigation 제16권 제5호/ 2019
397-402 (6 pages)
의약학>정신과학
초록보기
Based on Korean data from the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Pattern for Bipolar Disorder, this study tried to present prescription patterns in biopolar disorder (BD) and its associated clinical features. Based on the information obtained from the study with structured questions, the tendency of prescription pattern was studied and analyzed. Polypharmacy was predominant, including simple polypharmacy in 51.1% and complex polypharmacy in 34.2% of patients. Subjects associated with simple or complex polypharmacy were significantly younger, had higher inpatient settings, a larger portion of onset with manic episode, a shorter duration of untreated illness, a shorter duration of current episode, were more overweight, used less antidepressants and used more anxiolytics. These findings can suggest higher polypharmacy rate in more severe BD and highlight the necessity of monitoring the weight of subjects with polypharmacy.
This study explored long-term changes in self-report auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) among patients with schizophrenia taking clozapine. Forty-four patients who were evaluated more than twice and were above the mild severity category on the Hamilton Program for Schizophrenia Voices Questionnaire (HPSVQ) were enrolled. The mean observation period was 492.5±350.1 days (median, 452 days). The mean total, physical, and emotional factor scores on the HPSVQ were significantly reduced from baseline to the final observations except for one item “interference with life,” which was not significantly reduced. Regarding the time-dependent longitudinal changes modeled using linear mixed-effect regression, the total and physical factor scores showed significant changes during the first year, but the emotional factor score did not satisfy a more stringent level of significance. Female gender was negatively associated with the reduction in total and physical factor scores. The duration of treatment with clozapine also had a negative relationship with the reductions in all three scores.
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