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Psychiatry Investigation

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전체선택 Endnote Refworks
Objective The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met (rs6265) polymorphism is suggested to be associated with the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders, including panic disorder (PD). Although the fronto-limbic white matter (WM) microstructures have been investigated, the corpus callosum (CC) has not yet been studied regarding its relationship with BDNF Val66Met polymorphism in PD.Methods Ninety-five PD patients were enrolled. The Neuroticism, the Anxiety Sensitivity Inventory-Revised, Panic Disorder Severity Scale, and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) were administered. Voxel-wise statistical analysis of diffusion tensor imaging data was performed within the CC regions using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics.Results The GG genotype in BDNF Val66Met polymorphism has significantly higher fractional anisotropy (FA) values of the body and splenium of the CC, neuroticism and depressive symptom scale scores than the non-GG genotype in PD. The FA values of the body of the CC in the two groups were significantly different independent of age, sex, neuroticism, and BDI-II.Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with WM connectivity of the body and splenium of the CC, and may be related to neuroticism and depressive symptoms in PD. Additionally, the CC connectivity according to BDNF polymorphism may play a role in the pathophysiology of PD.
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Hair Cortisol as a Marker of Intergenerational Heritage of War? A Study of Veterans and Their Offspring
Ivone Castro-Vale,Elisabeth F.C. van Rossum,Sabine M. Staufenbiel,Milton Severo,Rui Mota-Cardoso,Davide Carvalho
Psychiatry Investigation 제17권 제10호/ 2020
976-986 (11 pages)
의약학>정신과학
초록보기
Objective Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with lower circulating cortisol levels in specific subgroups, which have also been found in the offspring of people with PTSD. The analysis of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) is a recent methodology which is used to assess long-term systemic cortisol levels. We aimed to study veterans with war-related lifetime PTSD and their respective offspring with regards to HCC. We also studied the influence of lifetime major depressive disorder (MDD), war experiences, and childhood adversities on HCC in these groups.Methods 31 male veterans with PTSD and 28 without PTSD and 69 adult offspring were studied. HCC were quantified by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry.Results No differences in HCC were found between veterans with and without PTSD, or between their respective offspring. Veterans without MDD showed a positive association between total war exposure and HCC. Veterans reporting more frequent childhood physical abuse had lower HCC. Veterans-with-PTSD’s offspring with MDD had increased HCC compared to offspring without MDD. Offspring’s exposure to more frequent childhood physical abuse was negatively associated with HCC in those without MDD.Conclusion HCC did not appear to constitute a marker of intergenerational heritage of war-related PTSD, except in the case of veteranswith-PTSD’s offspring with MDD. Our data suggest that HCC is a marker of adult reported childhood physical abuse.
Objective Among veterans, the prevalence of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is higher than among the general population, and some evidence suggests that this is related to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The purpose of this study was to determine whether the frequency of RBD differs depending on the presence of PTSD or trauma.Methods Patients who underwent nocturnal polysomnography (PSG) and sleep-related questionnaire surveys at the Veteran Health Service Medical Center were reviewed retrospectively. Based on patients with PTSD (n=20; 100% male; 67.9±8.5 years of age), we matched patients exposed to trauma without PTSD (n23; 100% male; age 64.0±13.4) and patients without trauma (n=21; 100% male; age 59.86±10.9).Results PTSD patients reported dream enactment behavior more than the trauma-exposed group without PTSD or the control group (p=0.006). After adjusting for age, there were more RBD patients in the PTSD group than in the trauma exposed group (p=0.049).Conclusion The results showed that RBD occurred significantly more in veterans with PTSD than those exposed to trauma, which suggests that there may be a pathophysiological association between PTSD and RBD.
Objective Attention-deficit and poor impulse control have frequently been observed in major depressive disorder (MDD) and attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Altered event-related potential (ERP) performance, such as GoNogo tasks, has been regarded as a neurocognitive process associated with attention and behavioral inhibition. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between Nogo ERP and adult ADHD in MDD.Methods A total of 64 participants with MDD (32 comorbid with ADHD) and 32 healthy controls aged 19-45 years were recruited; they performed GoNogo paradigms during electroencephalogram measurement. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) were evaluated. Clinical measures and GoNogo ERP were compared between three groups: depression with ADHD, depression without ADHD, and healthy controls.Results MDD subjects with ADHD showed significantly decreased Nogo P3 amplitude at frontal electrode, compared with those without ADHD and healthy controls. MDD subjects with ADHD showed significantly longer Nogo N2 latency at frontal and frontocentral electrodes, compared with those without ADHD and healthy controls. In MDD subjects with ADHD, the Nogo P3 amplitude at the frontal electrode was negatively correlated with the ASRS score and inattention. The Nogo N2 latency at the frontal electrode was positively correlated with false alarm rate.Conclusion The decreased Nogo P3 amplitude in the frontal area might be a potential biological marker for inattention in depressed patients with ADHD.
Objective The correlation among the thyroid-related hormones, Apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE ε4) and cognitive function has been reported despite controversial results. This study was designed to investigate this correlation among cognitively-normal elderly dwellers.Methods This study assessed 507 cognitively normal individuals aged over 60 who underwent comprehensive hematological and neuropsychological assessments including the quantification of serum free thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) as well as the Korean version of the Consortium Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s disease. The Korean version of Geriatric Depression Scale was also employed to evaluate the severity of depression. Age, gender, education, and the presence of APOE ε4 were taken into account as covariates.Results There was a significant positive association between verbal fluency test (VFT), Word List Memory Test (WLMT), and Word List Recall Test (WLRT) score and serum TSH levels (p=0.007, 0.031, and 0.023 respectively). The further analysis adding the interaction between APOE ε4 and TSH level, however, revealed only VFT score was significantly influenced by this interaction (p=0.026).Conclusion Lower serum TSH levels had impacts on both semantic memory (VFT) and episodic memory (WLMT, WLRT) among cognitively-normal elderly, whereas the interaction of TSH and APOE ε4 influenced only the task of semantic memory (VFT) in this group.
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Association of Alcohol Intake and Fracture Risk in Elderly Varied by Affected Bones: A Nationwide Longitudinal Study
Sheng-Min Wang,Kyung-Do Han,Nak-Young Kim,Yoo Hyun Um,Dong Woo Kang,Hae-Ran Na,Chang Uk Lee,Hyun Kook Lim
Psychiatry Investigation 제17권 제10호/ 2020
1013-1020 (8 pages)
의약학>정신과학
초록보기
Objective Previous studies investigating association of alcohol intake and fracture risk in elderly yielded conflicting results. We first examined the association between alcohol intake and total fracture risk in elderly subjects and further analyzed whether the association varied by fracture locations.Methods This is a nationwide population-based cohort study which included all people aged 66 (n=1,431,539) receiving the National Screening Program during 2009-2014. Time-to-event were defined as duration from study recruitment, the day they received health screening, to the occurrence of fracture.Results Total fracture was significantly lower in mild drinkers [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)=0.952; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) =0.931-0.973] and higher in heavy drinkers (aHR=1.246; 95% CI=1.201-1.294) than non-drinkers. Risk pattern of alcohol consumption and fracture differed according to affected bones. Similar J-shaped trends were observed for vertebra fractures, but risk of limb fracture showed a linear relationship with alcohol intake. For hip fracture, risk decrement was more pronounced in mild and moderate drinkers, and significant increment was noted only in very severe drinkers [≥60 g/day; (aHR)=1.446; 1.162-1.801].Conclusion Light to moderate drinking generally lowered risk of fractures, but association between alcohol and fracture risk varied depending on the affected bone lesions.
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Cut-Off Scores of an Olfactory Function Test for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia
Hye Ri Kim,Sun Mi Kim,Wonshik Seong,Hyun Jin Min,Kyung Soo Kim,Hyuk Ga,Doug Hyun Han
Psychiatry Investigation 제17권 제10호/ 2020
1021-1030 (10 pages)
의약학>정신과학
초록보기
Objective We aimed to find the optimal cut-off scores for screening of odor detection threshold, odor discrimination, and odor identification tests for detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia in Korean elderly.Methods A total of 195 elderly people were divided into three groups: the normal cognition (NC), MCI, and dementia groups. All participants underwent neurocognitive and olfactory function tests. We used k-means cluster analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to identify the most appropriate cut-off value.Results To distinguish the MCI from NC groups, odor identification [area under the curve (AUC)=0.670, p<0.007] with a cut-off point of 7 showed greater validity for screening (sensitivity/specificity=0.462/0.837) than did other olfactory function tests. To distinguish the MCI and dementia from NC as well, odor identification (AUC=0.817, p=0.002) with a cut-off point of 7 showed the highest validity for screening (0.785/0.654). To distinguish MCI from AD, an odor detection threshold (AUC=0.722, p=0.001) with a cut-off point of 2 showed the highest validity for screening (0.785/0.654).Conclusion Olfactory function tests may be a useful screening tool for cognitive decline before clinical symptoms of dementia have completely developed. This tool can be used as a supplementary tool to enhance the sensitivity of traditional cognitive tests to screen for dementia.
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Association between the IL10 rs1800896 Polymorphism and Tardive Dyskinesia in Schizophrenia
Kwang-Yeon Choi,Jeong Min Choo,Youn-Jung Lee,Yujin Lee,Chul-Hyun Cho,Seung-Hyun Kim,Heon-Jeong Lee
Psychiatry Investigation 제17권 제10호/ 2020
1031-1036 (6 pages)
의약학>정신과학
초록보기
Objective Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a major immunoregulatory cytokine and its gene plays a fundamental role in anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity. This study aimed to examine the association between the IL10 gene promoter -1082G/A polymorphism (rs1800896) and tardive dyskinesia (TD) in schizophrenia.Methods Two hundred and eighty unrelated Korean schizophrenic patients participated in this study (105 TD and 175 non-TD patients). TD was diagnosed using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TD and Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS). Genotyping was performed by RT-PCR and high-resolution melting curve analysis.Results The distributions of genotypic frequencies did not differ between patients with and without TD (χ<sup>2</sup>=4.33, p=0.115). However, allelic frequencies of the two groups were different (χ<sup>2</sup>=4.45, p=0.035); the A allele frequency was higher in TD. The total AIMS scores of the three genotypes were not different (F=1.33, p=0.266). However, the total AIMS scores of the A allele carrier and the A allele non-carrier were significantly different (t=5.79, p<0.001). Logistic regression analaysis showed that IL10 -1082G/A genotype significantly predicts presence of TD (p=0.045) after adjusting for covariates such as age and treatment duration.Conclusion This finding suggests that the A allele of rs1800896 may be associated with TD development following a low IL-10 function.
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Long-Term Substance Use Can Cause Irreversible Photopic Vision Changes in Substance Use Disorder in Remission
Oguzhan Bekir Egilmez,Mehmet Hamdi Orum,Ali Kustepe,Ayse Sevgi Karadag,Aysun Kalenderoglu
Psychiatry Investigation 제17권 제10호/ 2020
1037-1043 (7 pages)
의약학>정신과학
초록보기
Objective Substance use has such effects on pupil diameter. Although there is knowledge about the acute effects of substances on pupils, studies showing their chronic effects are limited. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of long-term substance use on scotopic, mesopic, and photopic vision.Methods The present study with cross-sectional desgn was conducted at the Adiyaman Training and Research Hospital for Psychiatry in Adiyaman. This study involved 110 substance use disorder (SUD) patients and 46 healthy volunteers as the control. The parameters were measured and recorded automatically by a device.Results The mean age was 23.44±5.53 years in the SUD group and 24.26±5.38 years in healthy controls (p=0.420). The mean age of onset of the substance was 17.74±3.89 years and the mean duration of substance use was 3.54±2.9 years. It was determined that the patients had not used any substance for a mean of 121.73±117.49 days. There was no significant difference between patient and control groups in terms of scotopic and mesopic measurements of both eyes (p>0.05). Photopic measurements were significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group (p<0.05). Photopic measurements were significantly higher in the opioid, cannabis, ecstasy, and multiple substance use groups than in the control group (p<0.05).Conclusion The most important topic of this study is that photopic vision is permanently impaired in patients with a history of chronic substance use. This was attributed to disrupted sympathetic-parasympathetic hierarchy.
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