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Psychiatry Investigation

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Objective Neuroimaging in headache patients identifies clinically significant neurological abnormalities and plays an important role in excluding secondary headache diagnoses. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the existing guidelines and studies surrounding neuroimaging in headache patients. Methods The research question involved determining the prevalence of detecting clinically significant neurological abnormalities using neuroimaging in patients suspected of primary headache. Searches of the PubMed and Embase databases were conducted on English- language studies published from 1991 to 2016, and the reference lists of the retrieved articles were also checked manually. All headache subtypes and patients aged ≥15 years were included in the analysis. Results Ten studies met the selection criteria. The pooled prevalence of detecting clinically significant abnormalities in the neuroimaging of headache patients was 8.86% (95% confidence interval: 5.12–15.33%). Subsequently, diverse subgroup analyses were performed based on the detection method, headache type, study type, study region, age group, and disease type. Conclusion The present findings indicate that limited neuroimaging methods should be carefully considered for headache diagnostic purposes when there are red flag symptoms. Limitations and suggested directions for future studies on neuroimaging in headache patients are described.
Reliability and Validity of a Turkish Version of the Acceptance and Action Diabetes Questionnaire
Reliability and Validity of a Turkish Version of the Acceptance and Action Diabetes Questionnaire
Mehmet Emrah Karadere,Kaasım Fatih Yavuz,Ece Yazla Asafov,Ferit Kerim Kü,ç,ü,kler
Psychiatry Investigation 제16권 제6호/ 2019
418-424 (7 pages)
의약학>정신과학
초록보기
Objective The aim of this study is to perform validity and reliability examination of the Turkish form of Acceptance and Action Diabetes Questionnaire, and to investigate whether this scale is a measurement tool for evaluation of psychological flexibility levels in a sample of patients with diabetes in Turkey. Methods This study was conducted with 105 patients. Turkish forms of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Problem Areas in Diabetes Questionnaire (PAID), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-I and STAI-II), Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life (ADDQoL) and Turkish form of Acceptance and Action Diabetes Questionnaire (TAADQ) were applied. SPSS 20.0 and AMOS was used in statistical analysis. Results 56.12% of the patients were female and the mean of age was 54 (SD=±9.9) years. The mean duration of education was found 7.65 (SD=3.97) years. 74.8% of the patients most of whom (83.3%, n=85) had diabetes mellitus and the mean glycemic control calculated with HbA1c was 8.02±1.91. According to the final fit indices, we found that the revised and corrected 9-item model was superior over the previous model. Cronbach Alpha coefficient of TAADQ was found as 0.836. Conclusion TAADQ is a valid and reliable assessment tool in Turkish population. So TAADQ will be a powerfull tool in assessing psychological flexibility in diabetes patients.
Objective Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder in elementary school children. The present study investigated the characteristics of ADHD in Korean elementary school children using the Korean version of the ADHD Rating Scale (K-ARS). The data was compared with those obtained from a comparable American population. Methods Participants included 29,914 elementary school children, aged 6–12 years, from a medium-sized city. The parents completed the home version of the K-ARS. The total and subscale-specific normative data and sex- and age-related mean score differences were analyzed. These data were compared with those obtained from the American population using independent t-tests. Results Mean total and subscale K-ARS scores were significantly higher among boys (vs. girls) and younger children aged equal to or less than 8 years old (vs. older children). Mean scores on the hyperactivity-impulsivity subscale were lower than those of American children, but similar to another Korean sample. Conclusion Our data characterized ADHD symptoms in Korean children. However, further studies are needed to identify the cultural differences underlying ratings of ADHD symptom severity.
Transitions in Problematic Internet Use: A One-Year Longitudinal Study of Boys
Transitions in Problematic Internet Use: A One-Year Longitudinal Study of Boys
Bo Young Choi,Sun Huh,Dai-Jin Kim,Sang Won Suh,Sang-Kyu Lee,Marc N. Potenza
Psychiatry Investigation 제16권 제6호/ 2019
433-442 (10 pages)
의약학>정신과학
초록보기
Objective Longitudinal studies may help elucidate the factors associated with Problematic Internet Use (PIU); however, little prospective research has been conducted on the subject. The aim of the current study was to prospectively examine PIU in children/adolescents and identify the possible risk factors associated with transitions in PIU severity. Methods 650 middle-school boys were surveyed at two points one year apart and assessed for PIU using the Internet Addiction Proneness Scale for Youth (KS-II) and on other psychological characteristics. Results We found that 15.3% at baseline and 12.4% at one year met the criteria for at-risk/high-risk PIU (ARHRPIU). Both the persistent- ARHRPIU and emerging-ARHRPIU groups revealed greater depressive, motor impulsive, and smart-phone-addiction tendencies than the remitting-ARHRPIU group or the persistent low-risk group. In addition, we found that individuals exhibiting higher hyperkinetic attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) scores were less likely to remit from ARHRPIU, and that individuals exhibiting more ADHD-related cognitive dysfunction and reporting fewer Internet-game-free days were more likely to demonstrate an emergence of ARHRPIU. Conclusion The present findings support previous studies in that specific negative-health features are linked to transitions in ARHRPIU. Furthermore, these findings suggest that intervention is needed and may be best targeted at specific groups of youths.
The Development of the Brooding Scale
The Development of the Brooding Scale
Ji-Hyun Kim,Yanhong Piao,Woo-Sung Kim,Jeong-Jae Park,Nam-In Kang,Keon-Hak Lee,Young-Chul Chung
Psychiatry Investigation 제16권 제6호/ 2019
443-449 (7 pages)
의약학>정신과학
초록보기
Objective The purpose of this study was to develop a Brooding Scale (BS) and to confirm its psychometric properties. Methods A preliminary questionnaire was developed based on a literature review and face-to-face interviews with healthy subjects. To evaluate reliability and construct validity, a 15-item BS was administered to 124 healthy subjects. Convergent validity was tested by assessing the relationship between the BS and the Ruminative Response Scale (RRS). Discriminant validity was confirmed in 58 patients with schizophrenia. Results The internal consistency for the BS was excellent. An exploratory factor analysis yielded two factors: the emotional (six items) and cognitive (five items) domains, which explained 33.83% and 23.69% of the variance, respectively. The BS total score and scores for factors 1 and 2 showed significant positive correlations with the RRS. The total score and sub-factor scores of the BS were significantly higher in patients with schizophrenia than in healthy subjects. Conclusion The BS can be used as a reliable and valid tool to assess brooding in healthy adults. In addition, it had good discriminant validity for patients with schizophrenia.
Objective A popular design for the investigation of such effects, including effects of parent-of-origin (imprinting), maternal genotype, and maternal-fetal genotype interactions, is to collect deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from affected offspring and their mothers and to compare with an appropriate control sample. We investigate the effects of estimation of maternal, imprinting and interaction effects using multimodal modeling using parents and their offspring with schizophrenia in Korean population. Methods We have recruited 27 probands (with schizophrenia) with their parents and siblings whenever possible. We analyzed 20 SNPs of 7 neuronal genes in chromosome 18. We used EMIM analysis program for the estimation of maternal, imprinting and interaction effects using multimodal modeling. Results Of analyzed 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), significant SNP (rs 2276186) was suggested in EMIM analysis for child genetics effects (p=0.0225438044) and child genetic effects allowing for maternal genetic effects (p=0.0209453210) with very stringent multiple comparison Bonferroni correction. Conclusion Our results are the pilot study for epigenetic study in mental disorder and help to understanding and use of EMIM statistical genetics analysis program with many limitations including small pedigree numbers.
Clinical Characteristics and Psychotropic Drug Prescription Patterns of Bipolar Disorder Patients with a History of Suicidal Attempts: Findings from the REAP-BD, Korea
Clinical Characteristics and Psychotropic Drug Prescription Patterns of Bipolar Disorder Patients with a History of Suicidal Attempts: Findings from the REAP-BD, Korea
Seon-Cheol Park,Kiwon Kim,Ok-Jin Jang,Seung-Gon Kim,Jung Goo Lee,Joon Hyuk Park,Joonho Choi,Dong-Woo Lee,Shih-Ku Lin,Chay Hoon Tan,Naotaka Shinfuku,Yong Chon Park
Psychiatry Investigation 제16권 제6호/ 2019
459-463 (5 pages)
의약학>정신과학
초록보기
Our study aimed to analyze the clinical characteristics and psychotropic prescription patterns of a history of suicide attempts in South Koreans with bipolar disorder (BD), by using only Korean data from the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Pattern for Bipolar disorder. The patterns of clinical characteristics and psychotropic drug use were compared among 53 patients with a history of suicide attempts and 297 without this history; the potential effects of confounding variables were adjusted with binary logistic analyses for discrete variables and analyses of covariance for continuous variables. After adjusting the effects of age, sex, duration of illness, and enrollment as an outpatient, patients with a history of suicide attempts were characterized by a significantly more prevalent depressive episode, lower prevalent remission state, lower levels of hemoglobin, and more use of antidepressants, anxiolytics, and hypnotics compared to those without lifetime suicide attempt. The inability to plan goal-directed behavior may be an intervening factor in the relationship between suicide attempts and depression in BD. Relatively low hemoglobin levels can be associated with manic episodes in patients with a history of suicide attempts and the use of antidepressants, anxiolytics, or hypnotics can be associated with suicide attempts in BD patients.
Low-Charge Electrotherapy in Geriatric Major Depressive Disorder Patients: A Case Series
Low-Charge Electrotherapy in Geriatric Major Depressive Disorder Patients: A Case Series
Xiao-ming Kong,Xin-hui Xie,Shu-xian Xu,Yang Chen,Chen Wang,Hong Hong,Yan Sun
Psychiatry Investigation 제16권 제6호/ 2019
464-468 (5 pages)
의약학>정신과학
초록보기
To examine the feasibility of low-charge electrotherapy (LCE) in treating geriatric major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. Bi-temporal LCEs (approximately 25 mC) were performed with an electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) instrument three times per week. We used the Hamilton Depression Scale 17 (HAMD-17) and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) to assess the effects of LCE and the Mini- Mental State Examination (MMSE) to evaluate the cognitive function change before and after LCE. Six visits occurred at the baseline, after LCE sessions 3, 6, and 9, after the last session, and at the end of the one-month follow-up period. Four patients were enrolled in the study. Two patients completed all LCE sessions. Two patients withdrew during the trial, one due to the adverse event of uroschesis potentially caused by atropine and the other due to her own will. All four patients completed the follow-up sessions. The HAMD-17 and HAMA scores were reduced significantly at the last LCE session and the end of the follow-up period compared with the scores at the baseline. As measured by the MMSE, cognitive impairment showed no significant changes at the last LCE session and the end of the follow- up period compared with that at the baseline. In this case series, LCE showed potential as an alternative current-based treatment for treating geriatric MDD patients. Further research is needed to assess the efficiency and safety of LCE.
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been reported to be involved in negatively regulating the effects of addictive disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate alterations in the levels of GDNF in patients with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and to assess the relationship between GDNF levels and the severity of IGD indices. Nineteen male patients with IGD and 19 sexmatched control subjects were evaluated for alteration of plasma GDNF levels and for relationship between GDNF levels and clinical characteristics of Internet gaming, including the Young’s Internet Addiction Test (Y-IAT). The GDNF levels were found to be significantly low in patients with IGD (103.2±62.0 pg/mL) compared with the levels of controls (245.2±101.6 pg/mL, p<0.001). GDNF levels were negatively correlated with Y-IAT scores (Spearman’s rho=-0.645, p=<0.001) and this negative correlation remained even after controlling for multiple variables (r=-0.370, p=0.048). These findings support the assumed role of GDNF in the regulation of IGD.
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