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The Study on the Change of Linguistic Identity and Code-switching of Korean-Chinese in China.” The Sociolinguistic Journal of Korea 25(4). 1~29. The purpose of this study is to investigate change in linguistic identity and language use of Korean Chinese. This study also aims to demonstrate that Korean Chinese are preserving both their identity as Korean and the language. All data were collected by field study which revealed Korean Chinese had high ability of Korean language use. However, considerable differences among the generations were shown. Teenagers showed less fluency of Korean compared to older generation. And Korean Chinese from highly populated with Korean Chinese region spoke Korean as their first language and showed more fluency while those from other region in China mostly spoke Chinese as their first language and spoke Korean less fluently. It is also noticeable that code-switching and code-mixing are prominent in the language use of Korean Chinese, especially among male middle school students. They showed code switching more markedly suggesting their language transition to Chinese. Therefore, further study on detailed examples of code-switching and code-mixing is required.
“Response Strategies for Countering Accusation of Inconsistency in News Interviews”. The Sociolinguistic Journal of Korea 25(4). 31~59. This paper analyzes the response strategies the presidential candidates in Korea and in the U. S. use when they deal with the interviewer s accusation of inconsistency and shows the presence of a strategic maneuver for trying to win debates. When an interviewer criticizes politicians who have allegedly changed their views or acted in ways that are contradictory with their earlier statements in political interviews, politicians are often observed to strategically employ category shifts (i.e. agent shift, perspective shift, time shift, identity shift, or dissociation of agenda) to bring about a change in the starting points of discussion, and thus direct the audience attention to the change at hand, rather than the central aspects of the issue. The analysis provides a basis for further considering the action implications of such practices in terms of how the politician s strategic maneuvering response contributes to the resolution of difference in opinion, as viewed by the interviewer and the audience.
‘Orangkae’ as an Ethnonym and ‘Orangkae’ as a Jacques Bonhomme”. The Sociolinguistic Journal of Korea 25(4). 61~85 From an ethno-linguistic perspective, this paper aims at revealing that the Korean word ‘ Orangkae ’, which seems to have been used as a Jacques Bonhomme, is an ethnonym in itself meaning a reindeer herder. Furthermore, this paper is concerned with how the simple ethnonym of Orangkae has come to function as a generic term denoting every phase of barbarians. The nomadic hunter-gatherers, moving from campsite to campsite, following game and collecting wild fruits and vegetation, tend to use the names of their totem animals as their ethnonyms containing endonyms and exonyms. This paper also deals with the psychological attitude of the so-called civilized people with a sedentary lifestyle toward the nomadic tribes living in situations of bitter snow and severe cold in such places as the Steppes, the Siberian taiga and even tundra, and to find out some disparaging terms similar to Orangkae used to humble gentiles to the dust.
“Sociocultural Dispositions and Changes Reflected on Neologisms”. The Sociolinguistic Journal of Korea 25(4). 87~117. The goal of this study is to find out the aspects of sociocultral dispositions and changes reflected on neologisms. To do this, two different sets of data are dealt with and investigated. The recent data are 2048 new words collected from 2012 to 2016 by National Institute of Korean Language; the older data are 2446 new words also collected by the same institute, which were published in 2007 in the book, Sajeone Eopneunmal Sinjoeo (Neologisms not found in a Dictionary). Since the former data were collected after smart phones were introduced and widely used, and the latter were collected before them, the comparison should cast some significant insights, especially because the principal source and the diffusing channel of new words are expected to be different. The data were divided by three broad categories, 󰡔society󰡕, 󰡔life style󰡕and 󰡔people󰡕, which were further classified respectively into several relevant subordinate groups. The two sets of data were compared and examined based on their frequencies and characters. Some of the findings are as follows: interest in people and individual differences draw less attention than before; IT related words are detected in various sectors of the society, life style and people; leisure activities come to occupy a much more important role in people s lives; women draw more attention in terms of their roles and social recognition; the same is true with the elders; rather difficult times youngsters are going through seems to be reflected in many negative words related to them. It was also recognized that the recent data demonstrate more of the characterizations of younger generation s expressions and perspectives than those of older data, which reflects their more positive adaptations of digital conveniencies in public communication.
“Joke Frames and Contextualization Cues in Korean and Japanese Conversation: With a Focus on Disagreement and Negative Assessment”. The Sociolinguistic Journal of Korea 25(4). 119~141. The purpose of this study is to analyze how Korean and Japanese use disagreements and negative assessments to frame their actions a joke, and to examine the differences in framing strategies in natural conversation between friends. I have found the following differences between Korean conversations and Japanese conversations: (A) In Japanese conversation speech level shifts and formulaic expression were used as contextualization cues that signal a joke while Korean used personal pronoun shifts and in some case, negative assessments were uttered without apparent contextualization cues. (B) To avoid the possibility that their utterance is regarded as a face-threatening act, Japanese speakers shift a frame by clearly expressing that their utterance is a joke. As a result, hearers participate in the joke frame without being misled. On the other hand, Korean speakers frequently utter negative assessments without apparent contextualization cues and tend to rely on how hearers interpret the frame.
“The Study on the Change of Language Situations in Belarus“ The Sociolinguistic Journal of Korea 25(4). 143~161. This study aims to review the short history of language situations in Belarus and to examine the changes and consequences of the language policy during the Soviet period and 4~5 years after the independence. 25 years after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russian is the national and most important language in Belarus, unlike in other post-Soviet Republics. As a matter of fact, 100% of Belarusians can speak Russian and approximately 5% of people can speak Belarusian fluently. In Belarus, the Russian language holds the status of the state language due to its cultural and historical background, rather than a friendly relationship between Russia and Belarus. More than 80% of the residents are virtually Belarusian-Russians in every public sector and personal activity. Russian is a mandatory language of all secondary schools in addition to the Belarusian. Moreover, the Russian-speaking population of Belarus is treated not as foreigners, but as members of the state, and is seen as part of the state-forming nation. The reason is that the indigenous titular ethnic Belarusians are officially considered to constitute the Republic of Belarus, and Russians are also included as a state-forming nation in Belarus. Keywords: “The Study on the Change of Language Situations in Belarus“ The Sociolinguistic Journal of Korea 25(4). 143~161. This study aims to review the short history of language situations in Belarus and to examine the changes and consequences of the language policy during the Soviet period and 4~5 years after the independence. 25 years after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russian is the national and most important language in Belarus, unlike in other post-Soviet Republics. As a matter of fact, 100% of Belarusians can speak Russian and approximately 5% of people can speak Belarusian fluently. In Belarus, the Russian language holds the status of the state language due to its cultural and historical background, rather than a friendly relationship between Russia and Belarus. More than 80% of the residents are virtually Belarusian-Russians in every public sector and personal activity. Russian is a mandatory language of all secondary schools in addition to the Belarusian. Moreover, the Russian-speaking population of Belarus is treated not as foreigners, but as members of the state, and is seen as part of the state-forming nation. The reason is that the indigenous titular ethnic Belarusians are officially considered to constitute the Republic of Belarus, and Russians are also included as a state-forming nation in Belarus.
A Study of Correlation between Language policy and the Pronunciations of Anlauts /l/ and /n/ in North Korean News”. The Sociolinguistic Journal of Korea 25(4). 163~184. This research tried to figure out the realization effect of usage of anlauts /l/ and /n/ as nicely shown in North Korean news and to discuss the societal and lingual backgrounds from this investigation. Therefore, the research analyzed the tone of Chosun Central TV news’s announcer shown in TV news program from 2014 to 2017. With this analysis, the research tried to show the reason why there are differences in language policies regarding Korean consonant anlauts /l/ and /n/ between South Korea and North Korea and to discuss the realization effect of anlauts /l/ and /n/ after the implementation of the language policies. In chapter 2, the research considered policies for marking these consonants and gradual change for pronunciation rules and checked the reason why there is a difference In grammatical rules between North Korea and South Korea. According to previous research, exhibiting anlaut /l/ in North Korean pronunciation rules these days is not related to any historical evidence or regional dialect(Pyongyang dialect). In the environment that precedes /i/ and /j/ accepting the /n/ consonant was due to late palatalization relative to other regional dialects and also late elimination of the /n/ and therefore these objects are reflected into standard language policies in North Korea. Korean News. The percentage of the analut /l/ realizations was the anlaut /l/ was 83.78%, which means most of realizations were done by the anlaut /l/. Anlaut /l/ was followed by /j/, /a/, /o/, // and other vowels, and the percentage of anlaut /l/ used before most of the vowels was similar. For anlaut /n/ the situation that was followed by /j/ showed 21 times of the realization set and 24 times of the non-realization set, which resulted 46.6% and 53.4% respectively and illustrated similar aspects as shown in analut /l/. The realization phenomenon of anlaut /n/ occurred from the Middle Ages, and the research therefore confirmed that North Korea still uses the conservative pronunciation of the language.
“Cross-Usage Patterns of English Coordinators and Connective Adverbials in Korean EFL Learner s Academic Essays”. The Sociolinguistic Journal of Korea 25(4). 185~210. The present study explored usage patterns of English coordinating conjunctions(CCs) in Korean EFL learners and native English speakers written corpus. Focusing on the morpho-syntactic use and cohesive functions of and , but , or and so as focal examples in academic prose, both quantitative and qualitative analyses were employed. Findings from the quantitative analysis of the opinion essays showed that both groups used and most frequently, which is used mostly in word/phrase levels rather than in clause levels. On the other hand, so is especially used as a clause-level CC. Because or and and used most frequently in word/phrase levels are recognized easily as CCs, they rarely appear in a sentence-initial position. By contrast, so and but used more often in a clause level appear in a sentence-initial position more frequently, which may lead L2 learners to confuse CCs with connective adverbials(CAs). Based on the Subset Principle, it may be interpreted that morpho-syntactic properties on CAs in Korean transfer to those on English CCs due to the morpho-lexical difference of CCs between the two languages. However, this study reveals that the L1 transfer seems to gradually retreat at an intermediate level where L2 learners start to perceive the registers of academic prose.
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