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This study explores to what extent cognitive and metacognitive reading strategies are employed by two different learner groups in secondary school contexts: general high school students and vocational high school students. Data were collected using a reading strategy questionnaire. Results showed that there was a similarity between the two learner groups: Memory strategies were the most preferred type, whereas planning strategies were the least frequently used one. Both groups also employed cognitive strategies more frequently than metacognitive strategies. A noticeable difference between the two groups was that the general high school group employed cognitive and metacognitive strategies more frequently than the vocational high school counterpart. Interestingly, the former group exhibited a statistically greater inclination to employ comprehending, memory, retrieval, planning, monitoring, and evaluating strategies than the latter group. Correlation analyses indicated a strong positive correlation between cognitive and metacognitive strategies. A similar trend was evident in the relationship between the six subtypes of reading strategies since comprehending, memory, retrieval, planning, monitoring, and evaluating strategy types were positively correlated with each other. On the basis of the results, pedagogical implications and helpful suggestions were provided to help L2 readers foster their strategic competence.
Taking an intercultural pragmatic approach, the present study compared native English speakers and Korean L2 learners performance of the speech act of correction and how it is realized with status unequals. The difference in status here is not necessarily socio-economic, but rather a matter of the power structure within the classroom context. By focusing on correction, this study looked at situations where one person knows the other has had a factual errors. The study attempted to find out whether there is pragmatic transfer from Korean (L1) among L2 learners of English in the strategies used to realize the speech act of correction. The correction speech act classified as an expressive is one of face-threatening speech acts and therefore have received much attention because of their potential for causing cross-cultural miscommunication. The participants included 20 Korean university students and 10 native English speakers. The data consisted of responses to four items of written discourse completion test per participant to elicit the speech act of correction. All the responses were analyzed as consisting of a sequence of semantic formulas (Cohen & Olshtain, 1981). Findings indicated the cultural background and L1 effects on the use of correction strategies.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Google Classroom-based digital classes on middle school students’ English listening ability. For the purpose of this study, the classes using traditional teaching methods were compared to Google Classroom-based digital classes at a middle school. For 74 students in the experimental group, digital classes were conducted using Google for Education apps in Google Classroom. For 71 students in the control group, traditional English classes were taught using paper worksheets. After carrying out experimental lessons during the course of a semester, and by analyzing pretest and posttest results of each group, this study compared the English listening ability of the experimental and control groups. To summarize the results of this study, it is effective in the improvement of middle school students’ English listening ability by exploring digital classes using Google Classroom. Therefore, teachers and schools should build wireless Internet classrooms and utilize a variety of digital tools in the classroom to equip students with future capabilities and to make learning more successful.
In Korea, the TOEIC test is commonly used in the application for seeking jobs. Therefore, for university students, especially those who major in English, obtaining a high TOEIC score is a huge goal. The purpose of this study was to find out the influencing factors on the TOEIC scores for English majors at a university in Chungnam Province, Korea. A total of 99 students participated in this study. Data were collected by administering a questionnaire with 35 items. The research findings are as follows. More students take the official TOEIC test as their grades get higher and their scores rise significantly. More female students take the test and their scores were higher than male students. Also, the longer the preparation period the higher the score got. The influencing factors between the top 25% and the bottom 25% of the students were the number of tests taken and their goal scores. According to regression analysis, it is indicated that the number of times the students take the test is the predicting factor for the students’ TOEIC scores. Based on the findings, it can be implied that motivation is important in TOEIC and different methods and strategies should be taught and used depending on the students’ TOEIC scores.
This study aims to explore pre-service primary school teachers’ decision making in simulated English class, focused on the role of their knowledge of language teaching and learning in planning, interactive, and evaluative decisions, including categories of interactive decisions and reasons for making them, and contextual factors that affect their decision making. The results show that pre-service teachers’ knowledge of learner-centered language teaching, cooperative language learning, and integrated skills approach played an important part in their making decisions in class. They reported many modifications of planned activities during lessons, followed by adding activities, dropping activities, explaining concepts, elaborating activities, and reordering activities. Also, they made interactive decisions most frequently to enhance student motivation and interests, and to increase student understanding. Noticeably, pre-service teachers’ lack of English proficiency was the more frequent reason for interactive decisions rather than time constraints, students’ English skills, and instructional management. Primary English National Curriculum, evaluation criteria for Primary English Education course, college classroom situation, and timing were also found to significantly impact on their decision making.
The purpose of the study is to compare the differences in perception of ‘importance’ and ‘performance’ of good instruction and to find out how these perceptions differ depending on whether they take a teaching course, their teaching practicum experience, and their willingness to pursue a teaching career. For this purpose, 63 students attending the English education department were surveyed. The main results were as follows: In the perception of the ‘importance’ and ‘performance’ of each element for good instruction, the average of ‘importance’ related to ‘class objectives and directions,’ ‘teaching contents and class operation’ and that of ‘teaching characteristics’ were almost the same. Furthermore, the average of ‘practice’ of factors related to ‘teaching objectives and directions’ were similar to that of ‘practice’ of the factors related to ‘teaching contents and class operation’. However, the average of ‘practice’ related to ‘teacher characteristics’ was slightly higher.
The present study is aimed at investigating the previous research findings about Englsih Listeracy (EL) of Korean EFL learners. In the study, 93 journal articles were collected from the journal of English Language and Literature and Teaching (ELLT). Then, the study conducted a statistical review with Freuqency Analysis (FA) to get the gist of collected journal articles. The collected data was categorized into participants, research method and topics. In addition, Content Analysis (CA) was follwed to ascertain which English literacies were dealt mostly among the journal articles. For the study, the term, EL is considered as functional literacy (FL), ciritical literacy (CL) and literacy for social practice (LSP) and they were analyzed respectively. In the findings, firstly, the descriptive information provides that ELLT mostly embraces the tertiary level of participants, teaching method and English writing competence. Secondly, the result of CA reported that FL related journal articles were mostly found in ELLT. Lastly, the study concludes the discussion with the further pedagogical implications of EL.
This study develops elementary English assessment tools for culture-integrated language learning based on scripts. A survey was conducted to investigate the needs of the assessment tools for culture-integrated language learning. On the basis of the needs, a set of assessment tests was developed, together with a rubric and specifications for each test. To examine the validity, reliability, and practicality of the tools, they were tested in an actual classroom of 24 students in 3 weeks. 5 English-education experts evaluated the validity of the tools using a 5-point Likert scale test. For the reliability of the tools, internal consistency and inter-rater reliability were measured with a Cronbach’s alpha (.985) and a Pearson’s correlation coefficient (.973) respectively. Lastly, 5 Korean elementary teachers and the participating students were asked to answer how appropriate the tools were with reference to instruction, learning, evaluation, and suitability in the classroom using 5-point Likert scale survey tests. All these tests verified that the assessment tools for culture-integrated language learning are valid, reliable, and practical to be used in the Korean elementary English classroom.
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