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This study investigated the linguistic prejudice against Korean-accented English (KoE) among Korean speaking learners of English (KSLs). To achieve this aim, this study set two objectives: 1) to explore the factors forming the linguistic prejudice against KoE, and 2) to flesh out valid determiners of KSLs’ linguistic prejudice. A questionnaire survey designed to measure prejudice toward foreign accented English by Ura, Preston, and Mearns (2015) was adopted and administered. Data were collected from seventy-eight KSLs, mostly first year college students. The questionnaire items containing 36 items were grouped thematically drawing on the five constructs: credibility, dynamism, social status, language-preference, and foreignness. Descriptive statistical analysis and comparisons between group means were performed for four factors validated with high internal consistency (𝛼 > .80). The findings suggest that the linguistic prejudices toward KoE are not always in line with past research showing somewhat negative attitudes toward KoE. Less proficient KSLs tended to be somewhat tolerant of KoE accented speakers. In addition, the degree of some factors in the linguistic prejudice was partially determined by study disciplines and self-assessed ratings in English speaking skills: KSLs majoring in English and who rated themselves at the moderate skill level showed their disapproval to KoE speech.
The purpose of this study was to explore college students’ and teachers’ perceptions of a performance assessment to see how students and teachers understand it. To do this, a quantitative and qualitative survey was given to 969 sophomore students who enrolled for an English conversation course at a university in Gyeonggi province near Seoul. The survey was also completed by eight native English instructors who taught the English conversation program at the same university. The results show that both teachers and students agreed on the necessity of a performance assessment. Both teachers and students believed that the performance assessment was helpful to improve students’ general English ability. Teachers preferred multiple types of tests throughout the semester, but students do not show clear preferences. Students prefer a one-on-one interview to a group presentation, even though they believe the group presentation improves their linguistic ability. Teachers believe the performance assessment helps, but do not strongly agree with maintaining the current project-based performance test. The results imply that maintaining a small class for conversation teachers and providing a comfortable setting for the students are the ways for performance assessments to be successful.
This study aims to explore factors inhibiting L2 learners’ oral communication in Korean EFL secondary school contexts. For this purpose, this study employed a questionnaire survey, which consisted of six overall types of communication obstacles: linguistic, background knowledge, cognitive, affective, interactional, and institutional domains. A total of 337 questionnaires were collected from three student groups: middle school, general high school, and vocational high school students. The results show that the vocational high school students face greater trouble with linguistic, background knowledge, cognitive and affective factors than do the middle school and general high school groups when speaking English. They also show that institutional factors cause greater speaking problems for the general and vocational high school students than for the middle school students. A comparison between engineering and commercial high school students reveals no statistically significant differences in most of the communication barriers except for the institutional factors. Another noteworthy finding is that many subsets of communication obstacles in the vocational high school group are significantly correlated with each other, one problem interacting with another. On the basis of the results, pedagogical implications are provided together with helpful suggestions for overcoming speaking difficulties in secondary school contexts. (195)
This paper aims to analyze the perceptions of Korean students’ public speaking anxiety (PSA) and suggest some applicable strategies for enhancing speaking skills in the EFL context. To do this, a survey on PSA was conducted, targeting 34 low-level students for G1 and 83 high-level students for G2 enrolled in an “English Conversation Class”. In-depth interviews were conducted with twelve students among enrolled students. Data was analyzed utilizing SPSS 22.0. The results were as follows. Students were more anxious in the pre-speech phase than during-speech phase. Overall, regardless of gender and English proficiency level, students feel nervous and anxious in PS. In addition, some effective and applicable strategies for improving English speaking skills were suggested; eliciting small group or individual students to speak freely in front of the class on certain familiar topics, a more relaxed environment ushered in by the instructor, evading a strong discouragement of mocking peers when they make mistakes, more opportunity to speak in front of students in building close rapport, and impromptu speech activities encouraging high-level students, and utilizing familiar chunks for speaking skills. Finally, implications for building up the value of speech communication skills were highly presented for better PS instruction.
The purpose of the study is to investigate the relationship between learning English and constructing identities by Korean early study abroad (ESA) students in US university contexts. Drawing on the poststructuralist notion of identity, the study attempts to depict ESA students learning English and their identity construction. Data were collected from interviews with six ESA students enrolled in US universities and analyzed to examine investment in learning English, communities of practice (CoP, Wenger, 1998), and conflicts between imagined and actual identities. The findings show that the participants had conflicts between their imagined identity of a perfect bilingual speaker and the current identity of an ambivalent speaker. Their sense of obligation to use more English was in conflict with peer pressure among Korean students. The results show that ESA students’ investment to learn English is facilitated or constrained by sociocultural contexts and their identity is constructed through negotiating the conflicts between English-speaking and Korean-speaking communities. The findings suggest that learners should be aware of sociocultural constraints or opportunities in their learning context, and should be encouraged to set a reasonable goal, specific to their needs.
As the number of Social Networking Service (SNS) users increases, proficient English writing skills are critical for clear expression in the global age. Accordingly, L2 learners need the confidence to present their thoughts and feelings more precisely by using a wide variety of descriptive adjectives. This paper seeks to develop the ability of Korean ESL students to use descriptive writing. To accomplish this, they will develop their correct use of adjectives and determiners in English writing. To begin this study, a pretest is given to identify the Korean ESL student subjects’ deficiencies in English descriptive writing. Then, two points are presented to the class: the difference between determiners and adjectives and the difference between cumulative adjectives and coordinate adjectives. After that, the errors they made on the pretest are edited, and they compose several descriptive writing samples. As a result of repeated practice, the L2 learners achieve a high degree of improvement. The result of this study demonstrates a notable development of the L2 learners’ descriptive writing ability. As a result, best practices suggest that L2 learners will benefit from the use of appropriate pedagogy in developing their English writing skills employing the use of determiners and adjectives with a focus on determiners and descriptive adjectives.
Language use as L1 and L2 both involves cultural conceptualizations because learning language requires continued cultural experiences and sustained mutual understanding among the members of a cultural group. This study aims to give some insights into the cultural conceptualization on L2 learning by examining the cultural schema of gyeomson ‘modesty’ and in Korean culture and language from the cultural linguistic perspective. Through the process of cultural experiences, the language learners internalize cultural schemas in both linguistic and non-linguistic aspects. This study shows how Korean L2 learners rely on the cultural conceptualizations such as cultural schema of gyeomson that have essentially connected to their L1 and argues that both L2 learning and intercultural communication require getting used to new configuration of cultural conceptualizations. The study concludes with a discussion of practical implications of such processes in L2 learning and intercultural sense making in English as a lingua franca context.
This study examines the current state of Achievement Standards-based Assessment (ASA) implementation in middle schools, in the domain of English language subject. For this purpose, the study analyzed the average and standard deviation of raw scores and the distribution of achievement levels of middle school students during the academic years of 2012-2016, by school year, metropolitan/provincial district, and school type. The data examined in this study was obtained from the posts of educational information, released by middle schools according to the Disclosure of Information Act for Educational Institutes. By examining the score reports of about 3,200 middle schools, the study identified several tendencies of ASA in the domain of English language subject. For example, the average score and the percentage of Achievement Level A increased each academic year of 2012-2016, while the ratio of Achievement Level E decreased. However, the average score and the percentage of Achievement Level A tended to continuously decrease as the grade (school year) of students increased while the ratio of Achievement Level E increase. Based on the analysis results, the study attempted to discuss implications for ASA implementation and suggest topics for future research.
This study examined if Korean high school students’use of English listening strategy would vary according to their proficiency and listening item type. For data collection, 136 high school students were asked to respond to a background information questionnaire, a strategy inventory for listening, an open-ended questionnaire with different types of listening items, and a Likert scale measuring item-specific strategy use. Ten English listening items were taken from three mock SATs and each item type was presented with the questionnaires. The students were asked to solve the questions and then respond to the questionnaires after completing each question. The most frequently used strategy was found to be a compensation strategy. Their strategy use, however, differed according to item types. For questions that measured factual comprehension, they tended to use the compensation strategy. In contrast, for questions asking for inferential comprehension, they used a memory strategy, with which they focused on core information in the listening input. It is notable that they used a cognitive strategy for a question that required some computation. The learner strategy use was also found to be different according to their proficiency level. Learners in the high proficiency group were found to use memory and cognitive strategy more frequently than their counterparts. These findings imply the need for encouraging students to use more varied types of strategies while listening.
The current study aimed to investigate class effectiveness on college students’ reading ability and their affective factors when applying a STAD cooperative learning method to an English reading class. The 47 participants taking English reading level 1 took pre- and post- reading tests to compare their reading ability. Of 47 students, 25 who took part in the STAD class completed two different kinds of questionnaire assessing students’ perception of STAD and class effectiveness including class participation, class satisfaction, students’ interest, and usefulness. The results said the STAD cooperative class was more effective than teacher-led class for improving students’ English reading ablity. In details, it made a significant difference in reading scores rather than vocabulary. Also, the more proficient students showed higher levels of class participation, academic interest, and usefulness, while the less proficient were more satisfied with the cooperative learning. The correlation analysis indicated that their satisfaction levels with the cooperative learning were related to usefulness and suitability of the method. According to the follow-up interview, the method brought about a closer relationship among students in a team and they performed their cooperative task successfully in a variety of ways, depending on their learning styles.
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