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This research explored the suitability of various English textbooks for beginning Korean EFL readers. Word-level characteristics of reading texts from several elementary-level textbooks were compared to determine whether the vocabulary displayed features that facilitated word recognition for beginning secondlanguage readers. The texts were also weighed against each other to identify possible differences among them with respect to these vocabulary features. Results related to linguistic content show lack of decodability across textbooks and a large proportion of infrequent words in the texts. Interest variables reveal a relative lack of word imagibility, concreteness and meaningfulness for texts designed for beginning readers. Differences were also observed among texts with respect to cognitive load variables such as number of total and unique words as well as number of repeated words per text. Conclusions are that absence of key linguistic characteristics of vocabulary that promote word recognition may cause beginning readers to miss opportunities to efficiently develop their English reading proficiency. As well, discrepancies among the textbooks for cognitive load variables demonstrate their inconsistency in key indicators of their lexical difficulty. Therefore, textbook designers should also consider using tools like Coh-Metrix to easily analyze and fine-tune these key vocabulary features during textbook design.
This study was conducted in a Sunday School Classroom where verbal participations of a group of children saying goodbye to their two friends leaving for Korea permanently. Their interactions were made under the leading of a teacher. Because of its unique circumstances, the teacher and the students did not show much intensity over getting the control of the class. The teacher naturally tended to keep her script by controlling the flow of students’ farewell talk and the students seemed to follow the teacher’s guidance. However, from time to time, the students covertly attempted to create their own script as counterscript to teacher’s script and the teacher did not deter their attempt and rather cooperate with them, even though she came back to her script shortly. This dynamics among the participants of this class showed an interesting nature of multi-voicedness in the classroom where the power relations are shaped along with the contributions from the participants. This is not a typical context where language learning occurs, but the pattern of interactions was led to meaningful results that can be applied in English education settings.
This paper reports on a survey study that asked native English speakers (NESs) and non-native English speakers (NNESs) about concepts and issues related to communication with speakers of World Englishes (WE). The purpose of the paper is to examine NESs’ and NNESs’ concepts of the English language and attitudes towards varieties of English, with the goal of raising awareness of the need for better education about WE. The population of NNESs now outnumbers that of NESs speakers. More, the English users in Asia alone are more than the total populations of the USA, the UK combined. This gap will keep increasing, which will lead to ever-greater variety and new forms of English with unique traits. Drawing on the notion of WE, NESs need to recognize the diversity that already exists, and develop the awareness and communicative skills needed for interacting with speakers of Englishes that are different from their own varieties. This paper argues that school curricula should include education about WE in order to better meet the needs of our rapidly changing societies and educators also need to be sensitive and appreciative of the existence of WE acting as guides to bring students to full awareness of WE.
45 ESL students with high intermediate level in an intensive English program in the States. It particularly focuses on the following three stages to see differences: (1) watching news without subtitles, (2) using subtitles during watching news, and (3) reading subtitles after watching news. The participants are chosen from high intermediate to advanced level at an ESL program of a US university and asked to take a general listening test. The listening materials for news are selected in consideration of content, length, accent of speakers since those factors play pivotal roles in the result of ESL/EFL listening comprehension. The statistical results disclose that the group provided with subtitles after viewing the news outperforms the other two groups - suggesting that using subtitles after watching news is far beneficial for ESL learners with the levels. On the other hand, being exposed to subtitles during news watch becomes distracting over listening comprehension. Identifying unclear words and expressions has also been a disturbingly burden over the phase of using subtitles during the news watching. Taking such findings into account, ESL/EFL listening pedagogy may benefit from a focus on employing appropriate listening techniques to accelerate listening proficiency especially for learners with high-intermediate to advanced level.
This study investigated the demotivation and remotivation factors of English learning for Korean university students in EFL situations. The sample group totaled 175 university students who took various types of English courses. The data collection consisted of a survey with closed questions, and individual interviews with a randomly selected sample of the student population. The data was processed by frequency and correlation analysis as well as a one-way analysis of variance based on participants’ TOEIC scores. The findings were split into three categories: remotivation methods, demotivation factors, and remotivation factors. The findings highlighted that low-level students lacked remotivation methods while high-level students used remotivation methods more frequently. The main demotivation factors were lack of basic language ability and the core focus on tests. The leading remotivational factors were triggered by receiving satisfactorily high test scores and future job prospects. Additional significantly different results by student level are noted.
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