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This study is to find out the proper planting and utilization plans for climbing plants in urban community gardens. As a result, a majority of respondents claimed that it is acceptable to plant climbing plants in their plots of the community garden. In particular, those who have experiences with gardening activities responded that climbing plants could be allowed in the community gardens. There was a high tendency to use climbing plants in community gardens for aesthetic or ornamental use and for creating fences. Many respondents also claimed that the climbing plants should be planted outside or on the edge of the garden and that the plants should not cross over to other plots. Those who responded that the climbing plants should be planted outside or on the edge of the community garden wanted to use the plants for aesthetic or ornamental use. Those who wanted to use the plants for creating shades responded that the plants should be planted outside or on the edge of the garden. For proper planting of climbing plants in the community garden, it is necessary to consider the height of the vertical plant support depending to the gap between the plots in the community gardens, the shape and color of flowers, leaves, and stems for aesthetic use, and mixing of plants for the duration of the shade period. Accordingly, introduction of climbing plants can be considered to increase the diversity of plants in urban community gardens.
The Impact of the Morphological Characteristics of Leaves on Particulate Matter Removal Efficiency of Plants
The Impact of the Morphological Characteristics of Leaves on Particulate Matter Removal Efficiency of Plants
Deokjoo Son,Kwang Jin Kim,Na Ra Jeong,Hyung Gewon Yun,Seung Won Han,Jeongho Kim,Gyung-Ran Do,Seon Hwa Lee,Charlotte C. Shagol
인간식물환경학회지 제22권 제6호/ 2019
551-561 (11 pages)
자연과학>자연과학일반
초록보기
This study was conducted to find out differences in the removal efficiency of particulate matter (PM) depending on the type of plants and the morphological characteristics of leaves. A total of 12 plants were used, with three plants selected for each type of leaves (big leaf, small leaf, compound leaf, needle leaf). We measured the removed amount of PM10 and PM2.5, the structure of the abaxial leaf surface, and the weight of the wax layer of each plant. Plants with the high removal efficiency of PM included Pachira aquatica Aubl., Ardisia crenata, and Dieffenbachia Marianne , and plants with the low removal efficiency included Nandina domestica Thunb, Schefflera arboricola, and Quercus dentata. The abaxial leaf surface having a high removal efficiency of PM had many large wrinkles, and the abaxial leaf surface having a medium removal efficiency was flat and smooth. On the other hand, there were many fine hairs on the abaxial leaf surface with a low removal efficiency. According to the plant leaf type, the PM10 removal efficiency of plants with needle leaves was about three times higher than that of other plants. In particular, the wax layer of conifers weighed 6-24 times higher than those of other plants. The stomata of conifers were evenly distributed on the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces; however, the stomata of Sciadopitys verticillata appeared in the form of papillae unlike general stomata. Therefore, the removal efficiency of PM varied depending on the macro-, and micro-morphological characteristics of plant leaves such as the structure of the abaxial leaf surface, and the weight of the wax layer. Based on this research, selecting plants that are effective in reducing PM in consideration of the plant type and leaf characteristics will improve indoor air quality and decrease exposure of PM to human body.
The North Korean government conducted its first nuclear test in 2006 and more recently the sixth nuclear test on September 3, 2017. In order to identify how North Korea s nuclear tests have affected the environment, a scientific approach is required. Although North Korea’s nuclear tests and their environmental destruction are not a severe threat to the environment of the Korean Peninsula at this time, identifying environmental damage and taking countermeasures in advance are essential to minimize their potential threats to the environments. The purpose of this study is to study the environmental impact of North Korea’s nuclear tests using Google Earth image analysis. As a method of the study, we compare Google Earth images taken before and after each nuclear test was conducted in North Korea. To overcome limitations of the suggested comparison method, we cross-checked our results with those of previous scientific research. After the 1st-3rd nuclear tests, green spaces were found to be considerably reduced. In particular, when comparing the Google Earth images before and after the second nuclear test, some ground subsidences were observed. Such subsidences can cause tunnels on the mountainsides and cracks in rocks around the mountains, leading to the release of radioactive materials and contaminating groundwater. Besides, after the 4th-6th nuclear tests, decay and deforestation were observed not in the nuclear test sites, but in their surrounding areas. Especially after the 5th and 6th nuclear tests, the topography and the forests of the surrounding areas were severely damaged. In relation to North Korea’s nuclear tests and their impact on the natural environment, we need to prepare various policy measures to reduce North Korea s environmental pollution and natural environment destruction. Those policy measures include the establishment of various cooperative governance between the Korean government, the private sector, the academia, NGOs, and international organizations.
Growth Responses and Regrowth to Low Temperature of Nine Native Moss Species
Growth Responses and Regrowth to Low Temperature of Nine Native Moss Species
Gyeong Yeop Gong,Kyeong Jin Jeong,Sang Woo Lee,Jae Gill Yun
인간식물환경학회지 제22권 제6호/ 2019
575-582 (8 pages)
자연과학>자연과학일반
초록보기
Moss is used as an important material in indoor landscaping as well as outdoor landscaping. Moss is vivid green during growth and excellent in ornamental value. But when temperature drops, moss stops growth, turns brown or loses its ornamental value. In the present experiment, for the purpose of classifying native mosses according to the growth response to low temperature, the temperature of the plant growth chamber was set to 15℃/5℃ (16h/8h, day/night) and 5℃ (24h) for 8 weeks using nine native moss species. Thereafter, the temperature of the plant growth chamber was set to 20℃, and then the changes of moss block area and moss color were measured. The changes of moss block area and moss color were measured using a Photoshop program, after each moss block was photographed. As a result, Atrichum undulatum (Hedw.). Beauv., Etodon luridus (Griff.) A. Jaeger, Bachythecium plumosum (Hedw.) Schimp, Plagiomnium cuspidatum (Hedw.) T.J. Kop, and Hypnum plumaeforme Wilson showed a small decrease in moss block area at low temperature, and their recovery were the fastest at 20℃. These three species had higher green values at low temperature compared to other species, and the greenness increased rapidly at 20℃. On the other hand, Atrichum undulatum (Hedw.). Beauv., Marchantia polymorpha L., and Thuidium cymbifolium (Mitt.) A. Jaeger showed the smallest block area at low temperature and the lowest recovery even at 20℃. Their green values also decreased significantly at low temperature, and maintained low green value even at 20℃. These results showed that these three moss species are sensitive to low temperature. The remaining Myuroclada maximowiczii, Plagiomnium cuspidatum, and H. erectiusculum showed moderate responses to low temperature compared to other six species of mosses.
This study was conducted to examine the effects of wet storage solution, transport period and temperature on vase life and quality of cut flowers in standard chrysanthemum ‘Jinba’. Immediately after transport, the fresh weight and flower diameter of cut flowers did not show a difference according to wet storage solutions regardless of the transport period, but as the transport period increased, the fresh weight and flower diameter increased. The flower bud stage at harvest was maintained due to the small changes in flower diameter, and the freshness of leaves was better when transported at 5℃ than at 25℃. When transported at 25℃, the longer the transport period, the lower the quality of cut flowers as some petals opened up and showed early flowering after transport. In preservative solutions, quality of cut flowers transported at 25℃ was lower than that at 5℃ due to fresh weight and diameter according to the longer transport period. The vase life of cut flowers was 1.0 day, 0.8 day, and 7.3 days longer when transported for 3, 5, and 7 days respectively at 5℃ than at 25℃. The quality of cut flowers was better due to increase in fresh weight and flower diameter, as well as vase life in wet storage solutions of ClO₂ and Chrysal OVB than in tap water, regardless of transport period and temperature. There was no difference in fresh weight and vase life between ClO₂ and Chrysal OVB, but flower diameter was greater in ClO₂ than in Chrysal OVB. Therefore, for long-term transport of cut standard chrysanthemum ‘Jinba’, wet storage transport in ClO₂ at 5℃ was found effective in maintaining the quality and vase life of cut flowers.
Identification of Plant Response to the Human Behavior of Crushing Plants
Identification of Plant Response to the Human Behavior of Crushing Plants
Kwang Jin Kim,Hyeon Ju Kim,Deokjoo Son,Na Ra Jeong,Hyung Gewon Yun,Seung Won Han,Soojin You,Chan-joong Kim,Seon Hwa Lee
인간식물환경학회지 제22권 제6호/ 2019
593-600 (8 pages)
자연과학>자연과학일반
초록보기
We identified how plants affected by the human behavior of crushing plants respond and what kind of plants responded sensitively. We investigated Lactuca sativa “Gaesebadak , Syneilesis palmata and Peucedanum japonicum as plants that humans use for edible purposes, and Achyranthes japonica and Bidens bipinnata as wild plants that stick to people s clothes and disperse seed. Plants exposed to human breathing air were compared with those exposed to human breathing air after being crushed. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a chemical word, was measured using Syft/MS, which detects real-time VOC, and related genes were analyzed. The amount of MeJA of Syneilesis palmata and Peucedanum japonicum as edible plants was greater than that of non-edible plants that disperse seeds using humans. The amount of MeJA ranged from 0.20 ppb to 0.35 ppb when the control group were not exposed to human breathing air. On the other hand, MeJA decreased after increasing for the first hour in human breathing air. Also, MeJA affected by human breathing after crushing plants was higher than that affected by just human breathing air. Peucedanum japonicum showed the most distinctive difference between the treatment with human breathing after crushing plants and the treatment with just human breathing. In addition, the gene activity of JAR1 and JMT increased 3 hours after the treatment with human breathing after crushing plants. Therefore, in the treatment with human breathing after crushing plants, the concentration of MeJA and the activity of related genes showed the same tendency to increase. As a result, the plant that responded sensitively to human behavior was Peucedanum japonicum. Plants released MeJA as a chemical word in the treatment with human breathing air after crushing plants.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of rational emotive behavior therapy(REBT) technique to the horticultural activity program as a method of reducing irrational beliefs and job-seeking stress, and improving career maturity through the change of irrational beliefs. The subjects were 30 university students with irrational beliefs, 15 of them in the control group and 15 in the experimental group. The horticultural therapy program was carried out in total 10 sessions once a week for one and a half hours. For irrational beliefs, the experimental group showed a significant decrease (p=.002) in the total score after the program, but the control group showed an insignificant change (p=.529). Total job-seeking stress score was decreased significantly in the experimental group (p=.002) after the program, whereas it was increased in the control group (p=.023). For the career maturity, the experimental group showed a significant increase (p=.008) in the total score, whereas the control group showed a significant decrease (p=.028). Therefore, it can be found that REBT applied horticultural activity programs are helpful for reducing irrational beliefs and job-seeking stress and improving career maturity for young adults.
This study was conducted to investigate changes in the mental functions of the elderly in nursing facilities affected by a horticultural therapy program based on validation therapy. To meet the purpose, we conducted a horticultural therapy program based on validation therapy with 58 elderly participants (average age 79.12±6.84, men and women) once a week, 50 minutes per session, in a total of 10 sessions. Participants were divided into the control and experimental group with convenience sampling. The program was carried out from March 15 to November 22, 2018. Vibraimage 8 pro(ELSYS, 2014) is a recent, psychologically based, emotional-recognition visual imaging technology that measures pixels microvibration in terms of digital frequency and amplitude parameters. To examine the effects of the horticultural therapy program based on validation therapy, Vibraimage was used to assess aggression, stress, tension, suspect, balance, charm, energy, self-regulation, inhibition, neuroticism and positive, negative, physiological domains of mental functions before and after program. As a result, the mean score of the positive domain in the control group significantly decreased from 63.89±5.09 to 60.74±5.48, but it decreased without statistical significance in the experimental group from 63.98±5.45 to 61.39±6.02. The mean score of neuroticism in the experimental group significantly decreased from 31.64±10.94 to 22.87±13.79. Moreover, the mean score of the physiological domain in the experimental group also significantly decreased from 25.08±6.27 to 19.42±8.80. Accordingly, horticultural therapy program based on validation therapy can be utilized as a program to promote mental health, especially maintaining positive mental health function of the eldery, helping those who live in long-term care facilities enjoy a happier life more happier.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Connectedness to Nature Scale(K-CNS), which was translated from the Connectedness to Nature Scale(CNS) developed by Mayer and Frantz. For this study, questionnaires were conducted with a sample of 407 Korean citizens from various backgrounds and regions, with the ages ranging from 17 to 60. Exploratory factor analysis, internal consistency test and correlation checks were conducted on this questionnaires data. The results of exploratory factor analysis supported that the K-CNS has 10 items in a single factor. The internal consistency of the K-CNS was .880. The K-CNS was positively correlated to the NEP (New Environmental Paradigm), satisfaction with life, mental health, compassionate love, and negatively correlated to stress response. In addition, differences were found by group and age, but not by the gender. The K-CNS was higher in the natural-friendly group than in the general group. By age, the K-CNS scores was high in 40s and 50s than 10-39 years old.
This study was conducted to analyze the characteristics of visitors to Hadong Bukcheon Iceland Poppy (BIP) Festival in order to sustain and enhance local flower festivals as a garden tourism. A questionnaire was distributed to BIP Festival visitors from May 18 to 27, 2018. A total of 167 responses were subject to be analyzed. Descriptive statistics analysis was mainly used and focused on describing the results in direct to explain the BIP Festival as a garden tourism. The number of female visitors and those in their 40s and 50s was high. Most of the visitors were found to live in other cities or counties near the area where BIP Festival was held and to prefer festivals held on the theme of nature and local features. The revisit rate and awareness of BIP Festival were 52.1% and 72.5% respectively. They mainly obtained the information on BIP Festival from people around them including family members, friends and colleagues, or from the Internet. Most answered that BIP festival was the most important destination on their trip. The major motives of BIP Festival visit included “spending quality time with family or friends (34.1%)”, “appreciating Iceland poppy and gardens (25.6%)”, and “enjoying oneself (tranquility, mental rest, etc.; 21.3%). As a companion, family and friends/colleagues accounted for 62.3% and 26.3% respectively. Most were found to spend 1-2 hours on visiting BIP festival and stay in Hadong county for a quarter of a day. In satisfaction of BIP Festival itself, “display and maintenance of Iceland poppy (3.76)” and “easiness of viewing (places arrangement, path, etc.) (3.57)” were high. In satisfaction of public relation and information, “service and hospitality of guides and desk clerks (3.66)” was high. The intention to revisit BIP Festival was nearly affirmative (3.73-3.80).
The purpose of this study is to derive institutional improvement methods for promoting the Damaged Area Restoration Project in greenbelts. The current status of greenbelts in Gyeonggi-do, where greenbelts are extensively distributed was analyzed, and the relevant laws and regulations were reviewed to suggest measures to promote the restoration project. The area of damaged areas within greenbelts in Gyeonggi-do was 6,121,024 ㎡, accounting for about 0.52% of the total area of greenbelts, and more than 80% was found to be located in Namyangju (55.49%), Hanam (16.48%), and Siheung (8.68%). Various measures to improve the policy were examined as follows: reducing the minimum size of the restoration project area; adjusting baseline of recognizing range of damaged areas; introducing the right of claim for land sale; allowing long-term unexecuted urban parks to be replaced as alternative sites for parks and green spaces; simplifying administrative procedures; and allowing public participation. All of them are expected to promote the restoration project within greenbelts. In results, when the minimum size of area for the restoration project was reduced from 10,000 ㎡ into 5,000 ㎡, 3,000 ㎡ and 2,000 ㎡, the ratio of the number of combinable lots to the total number of lots increased from 4.4% to 18.8%, 38.8%, and 55.9% respectively in Namyangju. Morever, when the recognizable ranges of the restoration project were extended to the structures obtaining building permit as of March 30, 2016 and obtaining use approvals before December, 2017, the number of applicable lots increased by 5.1% and 9.2% respectively.
This study aims to find out methods to more efficiently maintain and manage landscape areas within apartment complexes by analyzing various factors related to landscape management and managers’ perception. The following results were obtained. First, 50.3% of the surveyed apartment complexes performed own landscaping, while 25.2% hired landscaping services partially, which indicates that apartment management offices maintained facilities by themselves or partially hired landscaping companies due to a shortage of funds. Second, among apartments that perform own landscaping, 37.5% of them were built more than 20 years ago, while 34.3% of apartment complexes that were built less than 5 years ago were found to hire professional management. Regarding the total number of households, 34.7% of those that perform own landscaping had less than 300 households, while 48.6% of those that hire full landscaping had more than 2,000 households. Third, regarding landscaping cost, 63.9% of those that perform own landscaping spent less than 20 KRW per square meter, while 28.6% of those that hire full landscaping spent less than 20 KRW per square meter and 25.7% spent less than 50 KRW per square meter, showing that the management cost was higher in the apartments hiring full landscaping. Fourth, work types also showed differences between landscape management types. Only 50.9% of self landscaping apartment complexes were found to regularly trim trees, while 91.4% of apartments that hire full landscaping services performed the same tasks, keeping trees healthy and visibly more appealing. Fifth, the apartments hiring full landscaping showed a higher level of work satisfaction (3.46) than those performing own landscaping (2.67). Sixth, on the matter of the level of satisfaction depending on the type of work, most items showed a statistically significance in apartments hiring full landscaping (3.11-3.43 on average), compared to apartments performing own landscaping (2.4-2.9 on average). Apartment managers showed a relatively higher satisfaction level in landscape management by hiring professional landscaping services.
The Korean society is currently showing a decrease in the child population and a rapid increase in the elderly population due to low birth rates and aging, but the current park system does not reflect the changing population structure. This study aimed to find ways to plan and promote use of senior-friendly parks for the aging society. The results are as follows. First, the elderly mostly gathered in Tapgol Park and Jongmyo Park which were accessible to subways and close to amenities and traditional markets. The elders usually gathered around buffer zones or green spaces set up to protect cultural heritages. Second, many elderly users were observed in Osolgil Silver Park and Sinteuri Park which were renovated with senior-friendly concept. These parks were recognized as places that the elderly people could visit without minding users of other generations because the elderly users were ensured by words such as seniors only or senior-friendly . Third, the importance of the locational conditions for the senior-friendly parks should be mentioned. A senior-friendly park must be located in an urban center to have convenient access to transportation, secure large green spaces, and make elderly users feel at ease with social connectivity when they use the amenities there. Fourth, the survey results showed that elderly people visited parks to exerciseand take a walk (track),by age, older age groups visited the park to socialize with other elders around their age. Fifth, the most desired facilities for constructing senior-friendly parks were fitness equipment, and sports facilities like a trail, track, and gateball field, and in some cases, vegetable gardens and indoor rest area to avoid wind in cold weather.
Recently, the importance and effectiveness of neighborhood forests have been increasing in relation to the quality of life of urban residents. However, there are very few domestic studies that analyzed the correlation between visit characteristics and life satisfaction. Therefore, the study aims to understand how people use the forest for recreation and determine how visit characteristics in neighborhood forests affect individual life satisfaction(ILS). A nationwide survey (N=2,624) was conducted on visit frequency, proximity to forest, means of transportation, forest activities, and life satisfaction. To measure ILS, we used the three factors (personal, relative, collective) of COMOSWB (Concise Measure of Subjective Well-being) developed by Seo et al.(2011). The analysis shows that people usually visit the forest located within the distance of 10-30 minutes from their homes 1-2 times a month on foot for hiking/walking (forest bathing). In particular, the older visitors(over 60s) tend to visit the forest more often than the younger ones (20s). Furthermore, more frequent visitors are more likely to live near the forest. As a result of analyzing the correlation between visit characteristics and ILS by controlling demographic variables, it was found that ‘visit frequency’ had a positive effect on ILS, and ‘proximity to the forest’ did not have a statistically significant effect on ILS. In other words, residents who live near the forests are more likely to be satisfied with their lives by visiting frequently. The significance of the study is that it statistically determined that visit frequency is a key factor for ILS. Future studies should take into account the various qualitative factors of forest visit such as vegetation, quantity and types of forest, which will contribute to setting the direction for urban forest development and management.
This study is to examine the effect of improving the forest therapy program for adolescents using forest healing resources (focused on improving index of greenness for adolescents). The participants were 30 students from in the control group that participated in the 2018 program, and 51 students in experimental group that participated in the improved program in 2019. The questionnaire, developed by Korea Forest Welfare Institute, was comprised of items on general matters, index of greenness, restorative environment, positive emotion, negative emotion, facial expression and psychological assessment. The control group had 30 and the experimental group had 49 valid copies of the questionnaires. As a result of the paired sample t-test for each group, the control group showed a significant increase in all categories except restorative environment. In the experimental group, all categories significantly improved to a higher level (p <.01). An independent sample t-test (one-tailed test) was performed to test the effect of the forest therapy program with improved index of greenness. As a result, the index of greenness increased by 0.73 points(t=2.555, p <.01) and restorative environment by 1.01 points (t=2.567, p <.01), showing statistical significance. Negative emotion increased by 0.04 points (t=0.183, p >.05), which was not significant. On the other hand, positive emotion decreased by 0.42 points (t=-1.918, p <.05), facial expression by 0.57 points (t=-1.775, p <.05), and psychological assessment by 0.29 points (t=-0.981, p >.05), showing significance in positive emotion and facial expression. However, all the decreased items showed significant improvements between the pretest and posttest scores of the experimental group.
Various health and social issues related to the elderly are emerging in line with the rapid aging of the population. In particular, dementia currently has a prevalence of about 10 percent of the elderly population in South Korea, which increases financial and social burdens to not only individual patients but also their caring family. To assess the effects of participating in the forest therapy programs for dementia prevention, this study recruited participants aged 50 and above and tested their depression (Korean form of Geriatric Depression Scale; KGDS) and stress response (Modified form of Stress Response Inventory; SRI-MF), which are emotional aspects of dementia. As a result, KGDS showed a significant decrease of 3.2 points from 8.4 to 5.2 points, and SRI-MF showed a significant decrease of 7.2 points from 40 to 32.8 points, indicating a statistically significant improvement in both. In addition, participants with minor depression and high level of stress in the pretest showed statistically significant improvements in the SRI-MF for men, and the KGDS and SRI-MF for women. Furthermore, there were statistically significant improvements in KGDS for participants in their 60s and in SRI-MF for those in their 70s in terms of age, and in both KGDS and SRI-MF for participants with chronic diseases and in KGDS for participants without chronic diseases. This study confirmed the effects of forest therapy on the prevention of the emotional aspects of dementia and laid the groundwork for increasing the applicability of forest therapy by obtaining a place for dementia prevention as a field of forest therapy.
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