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Background and objective: Land vacancy is a persistent issue inmost urban areas in the United States, yet few case studies have examined how vacant lots are used and the functions they serve in local communities. The purposes of this study were to provide a new revitalization planning and design proposal for the Durant-Tuuri-Mott (DTM) target area in the shrinking city of Flint, MI, USA, and to assess the final planning and design guideline through an analysis of vacant land redevelopment alternatives. Methods: For developing a revitalization planning and design guideline, this study developed several design modules with three main design themes. Then, landscape performance of the final design proposals was analyzed by three development scenarios, based on implementation level: 100%, 75%, and 50%. These development scenarios were based on the local context and different implementation budgets needed to adopt the proposed design modules. To generate a comprehensive development plan by optimizing design module allocation in the study area, this research employed a system-oriented approach, analyzing the existing cultural, natural, and built environments. A community participant process was adopted to collect stakeholders’ opinions on future development. Results: By utilizing landscape performance metrics to quantify the environmental, social, and economic benefits, this study developed optimized development scenarios and a master plan for the reuse and redevelopment of existing vacant lots across DTM neighborhoods and analyzed the benefits of each. Conclusion: This research offers a flexible design method for balancing objectives in vacant land redevelopment that can be applied in other shrinking cities.
Interaction of 2-Hydroxyquinoxaline (2-HQ) on Soil Enzymes and Its Degradation: A Review
Interaction of 2-Hydroxyquinoxaline (2-HQ) on Soil Enzymes and Its Degradation: A Review
Venkata Subba Reddy Gangireddygari,Rajasekhar Reddy Bontha,Ju-Yeon Yoon
인간식물환경학회지 제23권 제4호/ 2020
399-410 (12 pages)
자연과학>자연과학일반
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The United Nations project the world population to reach 10 billion by the year 2057. To increase the food of the ever-increasing world population, agrochemicals are indispensable tools to the boon in agriculture production. These agrochemicals are a serious threat to the health of humans, plants, and animals. Agrochemicals are ultimately reached to the main reservoir/sink such as soil and contaminating the groundwater, disturb the soil health and in turn a serious threat to biogeochemical cycling and the entire biosphere. Among agrochemicals, quinalphosis one of the most repeatedly and widely used insecticides in the control of a wide range of pests that attack various crops. Quinalphos is shown to be primarily toxic in organisms by acetylcholinesterase enzyme action. Hydrolysis of quinalphos produces amajor metabolite 2-hydroxyquinoxaline (2-HQ), which has shown secondary toxicity in organisms. 2-HQ is reported to be mutagenic, carcinogenic, growth inhibition and induce oxidative stress in organisms. Quinoline is a heterocyclic compound and structural resemblance of 2-HQ with minor changes, but its degradation studies are enormous compared to the 2-HQ compound. Biotic factors in fate and behavior of 2-HQ in the environment are least studied. 2-HQ interactions with soil enzymes are vary from soil to soil. Based on the toxicity of 2-HQ in our stockpile we need to isolate a handful of microorganisms to treat this persistent metabolite and also other metabolites/compounds.This brief review will be significant from the point of biological and environmental safety.
Background and objective: This study was conducted to find out the effects of healing farm resources and participant satisfaction on the level of stress and loyalty. Methods: The experiment was conducted on 18 subjects who participated in agro-healing activities (aged 49.5 years on average) and the concentration of cortisol, the level of stress and satisfaction with the services and program of a healing farm. The healing-agriculture activities were performed once a week, a total of 7 sessions, for 90 minutes and their saliva was collected before and after the activities. Results: The concentration of cortisol, a stress hormone, was statistically significantly reduced after the healing-agriculture activities in 5 out of 7 sessions. The total cortisol concentration showed statistically significant differences. The 6th session was comprised of different activities, compared to others, such as understanding weeds, managing a garden and making a pizza with fermentation enzymes, and the level of cortisol in the 6th session was the lowest after participating in the agro-healing activities, which indicated that the activities have the positive effect of lowering the level of stress. The level of stress was lowered from 18.39 to 16.78, which was consistent with the results of the concentration of cortisol. The level of satisfaction in the last session was below 50%, which indicated that the owner of the farmmight be a little inexperienced in education and marketing on information and safety. The variables of participants including stress and satisfaction with services showed a strong influence on their loyalty. Conclusion: Satisfaction with services and loyalty to the healing farm showed a very high correlation, which was statistically significant. It also showed that participants stress level and satisfaction with the services and program of the healing farm have a strong influence on their loyalty.
Background and objective: Traditional farming is winning recognition as a sustainable alternative farming method. As urban farming increases in South Korea, it is crucial to develop more sustainable farming techniques. Gyeonjongbeop is the traditional farming method introduced in the Joseon period. This study was conducted to propose a productive garden model suitable for urban farming through the interpretation of traditional farming methods contained in Imwongyeongjeji Bolliji and to test the model on an actual field. Methods: Using the design and cropping system of Gyeonjongbeop as the research materials, we reviewed its tillage and cultivation and examined the applicability.We proposed a modified method by extracting parts applicable to urban farming. According to themethods, we created a gardenwith ridges and furrows, cultivated proper vegetables, and evaluated their growth. Results: Raphanus sativus, Allium fistulosum L., Brassica juncea, and Spinacia oleracea grown on ridges showed higher growth than those grown on a conventional flat field. The growth of Hordeum vulgare var. hexastichon and Triticum aestivum L. on furrows was also slightly higher. This proved that the method could make up for the deficiencies of barley and wheat that are weak against winds and cold and are easily destroyed by the spring rains. Conclusion: Ridge and furrow cultivation derived fromGyeonjongbeop can be an efficient urban farming system compared to the conventional cultivation in flat fields. The system can use fallow lands in winter for year-round urban farming. In addition, the application of the traditional farming system can enhance the humanistic value of urban farming.
Derivation of Indicators for Value Assessment of School Gardens
Derivation of Indicators for Value Assessment of School Gardens
In-Kyoung Hong,Hyung-Kwon Yun,Young-Bin Jung,Sang-Mi Lee
인간식물환경학회지 제23권 제4호/ 2020
433-443 (11 pages)
자연과학>자연과학일반
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Background and objective: The boom in urban agriculture has also resulted in the creation of many school gardens. With the increase in various hands-on education programs, people are interested in assessing the value of school gardens. This study was conducted to derive indicators for service value assessement of educational farming experience using school gardens. Methods: Through literature review, we selected assessment items and sub-factors. The indicators for evaluating the effectiveness of school gardens are classified using the Delphimethod that involve a focus group experts. In order to increase the reliability and validity of the selected and classified items, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted. In addition, the relative importance and priority of each factor in each field were assessed using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Results: We classified the indicators into 4 criteria and come up with 13 items and 33 sub-factors in educational value, health value, economic value, and ecological and environmental value. Most of the items for the 4 value criteria derived were significant for assessing the value of agricultural experience services with content validity ratio (CVR) higher than 0.59 and reliability higher than .6 . In the value criteria, the experts rated educational value as the most important, followed by health value, ecological and environmental value, and economic value. In the assessment items, the most important was improvement of social functions. In the sub-factors, the most important was strengthening of ties (friendly interactions). Conclusion: Among the derived indicators assessing the value of school gardens, 4 criteria, 12 evaluation items and 29 sub-factors showed significance. The schematic index would be useful for the assessment.
Background and objective: Calcium chloride (CaCl₂) and sodium chloride (NaCl) are commonly used as a deicing agent in South Korea and penetrate the soil on the roadside, causing damage to plants. This study was conducted to investigate the salinity reduction effect of Pennisetum alopecuroides and the chemical characteristics of soil leachate. Methods: The plants were treated with five different concentrations of CaCl₂ (0, 1, 2, 5, and 10g·L⁻¹) and were grouped into the Cont., C1, C2, C5, and C10 groups. CaCl₂ of 200 m·L⁻¹ was sprayed to each plant once every two weeks. The growth of P. alopecuroides (plant height, leaf length, leaf width and the number of leaves) was measured. The level of EC and pH, and exchangeable cations (K⁺, Ca⁺², Na⁺, and Mg⁺²) in the leachate of soil was monitored. Results: The pH of soil leachate decreased as the CaCl2 concentration increased, and the EC increased significantly. The content of K⁺ did not change significantly until the concentration of CaCl₂ reached 5 g·L⁻¹, but the content of Ca²⁺, Na⁺, and Mg²⁺ significantly increased. The plant height, leaf length, and leaf width of P. alopecuroides showed the highest value in CaCl₂ 1 g·L⁻¹ followed by CaCl₂ 2 g·L⁻¹ and the control group. Root fresh weight was the highest in CaCl₂ 2 g·L⁻¹. On the other hand, there was no change in the shoot fresh weight, dry weight and root dry weight, and P. alopecuroides growth inhibition at the concentration of 5 g·L⁻¹ or higher in the plant height and leaf length. Conclusion: P. alopecuroides is relatively highly salt-tolerant and can improve the salt damaged soil by lowering the content of the salt-based exchangeable K⁺ ions.
Changes in Physiological Activity of Gardenia Fructus by Roasting Treatment
Changes in Physiological Activity of Gardenia Fructus by Roasting Treatment
Ji Sun Park,Ha Kyoung Choi,Jeong Eun Kang,Yong Wook Shin,In Ah Lee
인간식물환경학회지 제23권 제4호/ 2020
455-464 (10 pages)
자연과학>자연과학일반
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Background and objective: This study was conducted to examine changes in the composition and physiological activity of Gardenia Fructus after being roasted. Methods: The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activity of Gardenia Fructus was evaluated using the Gardenia Fructus (GF) and roasted Gardenia Fructus (RGF) ethanol extracts, and their components were analyzed through HPLC. Results: As a result, it was confirmed that the content of gardenoside and geniposide decreased and the content of genipin increased when GF was roasted. The total content of polyphenols was 54.5 ± 2.18 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE) per gram of the GF extract and 69.6 ± 0.36 mg GAE per gram of the RGF extract. As a result of evaluating 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, both the GF and RGF extracts showed the similar activity to ascorbic acid at the concentrations of 1 mg/mL or higher. In RAW264.7 macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS), the RGF extract showed a higher effect of reducing NO production, and significantly reduced the expression of an inflammatory cytokine, IL-6. As a result of evaluating the antimicrobial activity, the RGF extract showed higher antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. In the dextran sulfate sodium salt (DSS) induced inflammatory bowel disease mouse model, the RGF extract reduced the weight of the spleen, and both the GF and RGF extracts reduced the number of bacteria in the colon. Conclusion: Therefore, it has been confirmed through this study that roasting at a high temperature changes the main components of the GF extract and increases its biological activity. The RGF extract is expected to be used as a natural material with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects.
Background and objective: Aronia melanocarpa, called black chokeberry, is a natural product belonging to the family rosaceae, and is known to contain polyphenolic antioxidants including cyanidin-3-galactoside, cyanidin-3-arabinoside, cyanidin-3-xyloside, and cyanidin-3-glucoside Because of the abundance of anthocyanins, Aronia has been studied to be used in various industries. Methods: Aronia melanocarpa extract was treated 24 hours a day to RAW264.7 cells with inflammations induced by LPS. After extracting total RNA, the amount of inflammatory cytokine expression wasmeasured using RT-PCR. After processing the Aronia liposome using Aronia extract and the layer-by-layer electrostatic deposition method in keratinocyte cells at the same time, we checked the synthesis of Hyaluronic acid enhanced through the formation of Aronia liposome using ELISA. Results: The treatment of Aronia extract in inflammation-induced RAW264.7 cells conducted to check the anti-inflammatory efficacy of Aronia extract inhibited inflammatory cytokines including TLR4, TNF-α, IL-1β, COX-2, and iNOS and increased the mRNA expression of HAS2 genes related to moisturizing. Based on the anti-inflammatory and moisturizing effect of Aronia extract, the Aronia liposome technology was introduced to Aronia extract to produce Aronia liposome. Conclusion: The liposome formation of Aronia extract is expected to be used as a functional material in treating various inflammatory skin diseases by controlling the moisture content of the corneocytes by increasing the expression rate of genes associated with the synthesis of hyaluronic acid, while retaining the efficacy of its components.
Revalidating the Factor Structure of Types of Horticultural Therapy Activities with Confirmatory Factor Analysis
Revalidating the Factor Structure of Types of Horticultural Therapy Activities with Confirmatory Factor Analysis
Yong Hyun Kim,Keun Young Huh,In-Kyoung Hong,Sang-Mi Lee,Hwa-Ok Bae,Moo Ryong Huh
인간식물환경학회지 제23권 제4호/ 2020
475-484 (10 pages)
자연과학>자연과학일반
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Background and objective: Horticultural activity is one of the most basic elements of horticultural therapy, which brings about therapeutic effects for participants through various plant-related activities. The main objective of this study was to verify the results of previous research, which suggested six types of activities from the exploratory factor analysis. Methods: To meet the purpose of this study, a questionnaire was designed to determine the preferences for 6 types of the horticultural therapy activities. The survey was conducted on 703 people from March 7 to June 20, 2019. The data of 674 cases were used into the final analysis, excluding unreliable responses. Descriptive statistics, and reliability analysis were performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 25, and confirmatory factor analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Amos 21. Results: First, horticultural therapy activities were classified into 6 types from the exploratory factor analysis, as conducted in previous research. The confirmatory factor analysis provided that the fit of the final model was satisfactory with χ² = 1,300.590 (p < .001), RMR = .045, GFI = .876, RMSEA = .062, NFI = .914, TLI = .905, CFI = .914. Conclusion: This result revalidated that the mode with 6 types of horticultural therapy activities from previous research is appropriate criteria for the classification of horticultural activities. The model could be used to design more systematic horticultural therapy programs that meet the needs or circumstances of the subject, or that are suitable for necessary therapeutic intervention methods.
Background and objective: Juvenile crimes tend to intensify and become habitual in South Korea and juvenile delinquencies must be corrected during adolescence. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a forest therapy program on the self-esteem and resilience of juveniles under protective detention. Methods: We designed the forest therapy program titled “A Dreamy Child, One More Forest!” for one night and two days and a total of 122 juveniles under protective detention participated in the program. Self-esteem scale (SES) and resilience scale for adolescents (RSA) were used and the collected data were analyzed using frequency analysis and T-test. Results: Most of the participants were male (96.7%), and the number of those aged 17 years was highest (35, 28.7%). The number of those enrolled in middle and high school was 69 (56.0%) and that of those who dropped out was 39 (31.9%). Their self-esteem significantly increased from 3.102 before participation to 3.636 (p < .001) after participation in the forest therapy program. Resilience also increased remarkably from2.950 before participation to 3.829 (p < .001) after participation, showing positive changes after participation in both cases. Conclusion: The results indicated the forest therapy program could enhance the self-esteem of juveniles under protective detention, provide them with an opportunity for developing their inner positive power and reinforcomg resilience, helping them return to society in a healthy state. Further research needs to be conducted on how the effects over the program period will differ from one another and how long the positive effects will last.
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