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Journal of Korean Institute for Functional Medicine

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전체선택 Endnote Refworks
기능성 소화불량의 기능의학적 접근과 관리
기능성 소화불량의 기능의학적 접근과 관리
이상훈(Sang-Hoon Lee),김상만(Sang Man Kim)
Journal of Korean Institute for Functional Medicine Vol.4 No. 2/ 2021
1-11 (11 pages)
의약학>의학일반
초록보기
Functional dyspepsia (FD) is defined as the presence of one or more of the following symptoms, postprandial fullness, early satiation, epigastric pain or burning sensation, with no evidence of structural disease to explain the symptoms. The prevalence of FD ranges from 5 to 11 percent worldwide. The pathophysiology of FD is not well elucidated and the management of patients with FD is still controversial, so the current treatment can improve the symptoms in only a small proportion of patients. In addition, the role of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in FD has been emphasized. Although the mechanism remains uncertain, eradication of H. pylori is associated with a small but significant benefit in alleviating symptoms. The standard treatment of H. pylori is multiple antibiotics therapy. Its cure rate is up to 70 to 80%. But adverse drug effects such as nausea, epigastric pain, indigestion and diarrhea are reported about 50% of patients, and the drug discontinuation rate is also reported up to 10%. However, alternative treatment options have not been established yet. Therefore, the authors will review the functional medicine approach and nutritional therapy of FD and H. pylori infection, and suggest future research directions.
Immunity refers to the action of identifying and removing viruses or bacteria that have invaded the body from the outside. It protects cells from pathogens such as viruses and parasites, and these immune defenses are very important for maintaining a healthy body. On the other hand, an excessive immune response or autoimmune reaction should be suppressed to maintain good health status. A proper immune system requires sustained apoptosis and production of immune cells. Cell metabolism requires an adequate supply of essential micronutrients such as minerals and vitamins. Iron, selenium, zinc, vitamins A, B, C, D, and E act as coenzymes to regulate redox processes and gene expression in cell metabolism. Therefore, in order to maintain proper immune function, an adequate supply of micronutrients and vitamins plays a positive role in improving immune function.
Sleep is closely related to health behaviors and is also a crucial lifestyle in itself. In this regard, sleep health should be a part of assessing and managing chronic fatigue in the clinical field. First, it is vital to get in the early morning sun and improve sleep hygiene for proper melatonin secretion. Second, relaxation, meditation, or nutritional supplementation can be helpful to prevent sympathetic nervousness in the evening. Third, it is important to re-recognize and regain the health blessings of rapid eye movement sleep in the early morning. Lastly, meals tailored according to the biological clock (chrono-nutrition) can facilitate gut microbiota s healthy flourishing and the 24-hour circadian rhythm. When assessing and treating patients with chronic fatigue, functional medicine approaches are another essential step for improving the quality of life and advanced health care, based on a broad understanding of sleep science.
To summarize the maintenance of homeostasis in our body in terms of signal transduction, there are two major axes: the autonomic nervous system and hormones. The autonomic nervous system, one of the peripheral nerves, secretes neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine and acetylcholine to affect target organs quickly and efficiently. Hormones can be viewed as signals that trigger larger changes in the DNA level after they are secreted into the blood and reach target cells. The autonomic nervous system plays the role of a fine screw that regulates the body s functions according to internal and external stimuli, while hormones play the role of a coarse screw. The autonomic nervous system plays the role of a fine screw that fine-tunes the body s functions according to internal and external stimuli, while hormones play the role of a coarse screw. Adrenal hormones are involved in the circadian cycle and vitality of life, and most actively cope with stress and external changes. It can also affect other hormones such as thyroid hormones, sex hormones, and insulin, and also interacts with the autonomic nervous system in the pituitary gland. In the past, growth hormone supplementation therapy was the main concern in the field of anti-aging medicine, but recently, research on the interaction between other hormones has become an important issue. Therefore, this review aimed to examine the integrated understanding and academic basis for the interaction between thyroid hormone, insulin, sex hormone, and neurotransmitter, focusing on adrenal hormone.
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