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한국학논총

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As a provincial county in Silla, it was possible to check the geographical value and geopolitical implications of Hwanghae-do region and surrounding islands. The Hwanghae-do region and northwestern islands began to be located within the region of local rule in the mid- to late Silla period, and were the strategic points of faithfully performing multi-purpose functions as an outpost of Balhae control and a forward base for foreign trade. Paegangjin region was located on the geopolitical fault line after the formation of Balhae, which required a precise response. Silla s aggressive push to install the steel rods was a mixed factor behind the backdrop, with the distribution of fertile plains areas and the presence of iron ore deposits being the main factors in the implementation of the policy. Against this backdrop, the Paegangjin was the establishment of a military hub at the same time as the strengthening of regional rule Silla conducted on Hwanghae-do region near the border of Balhae. Local county prefectures in the Hwanghae-do and northwestern islands symbolized Silla s strengthening of its control over the islands, and the purpose of operating facilities, such as ranches, was based on the main point or site of the Trans-West Sea route, and performed its management functions. Hwanghae-do and Hanju areas, where a strong earthquake was installed, embraced the newly formed social and economic order along transportation and trade routes, leading to the emergence of fast-growing local forces such as Namcheon-gun and Pyochon-hyun, while maintaining their independence based on the order and leading the social change.
The purpose of this school is to reveal the characteristics and significance of the basic structure of society during the late Joseon Dynasty in the previous period. As for the late Joseon Dynasty, Jeong yak-yong(丁若鏞) is said to be ‘People(庶人) isn’t made up of home(家)’. This refers to home(家) accompanied by a title of nobility. A subject without a title is not something to do and cannot further achieve home. These seven conditions must be met before home can be formed. Lineage(宗) is defined by real identity(正體) and sub lineage(小宗). Firstly, real identity(正體) is a condition of lineage heir(宗 子). The real identity(正體) is son(子) which is a legitimate wife’s firstborn (嫡長), the successor to lineage(宗), where lineage is direct line(直系) from grandfather(祖). It can be said that lineage(宗) which successive lineage(宗) of narrow meaning of direct line rathers same lineage(同宗)’s minor blood group, which gathers together with family(族人). The characteristic of the late Joseon Dynasty is ‘proliferating(擴散) of main lineage(大宗)’. This is based on ‘adoption(立後)’ and ‘relativization(相對化)’. Adoption(立後) is something only main lineage(大宗) can do. Nine family(九族) can be interpreted in two main ways. Nine family(九族) of Gomun(古文) and Geummun(今文) argues that nine(九) is the sum of father’s family(父族) four, mother’s family(母族) three, and wife’s family(妻族) two. According to them, nine family(九族) includes other last name who can wear mourning clothes. Gomun(古文), on the other hand, argues that nine family(九族) is from great-great-grandfather(高祖) to great-great-grandson(玄孫) which mean the ninth generation(九世). According to them, nine family(九族) refers only same last name(同姓) except other last name(異姓). The characteristics of the late Joseon Dynasty were the same as those of Gomun(古文). In other words, the term is in this period refers to family(族) that is gathered around direct line(直系) from great-great-grandfather(高祖) to great-greatgrandson(玄孫).
At the end of King Yeongjo’s reign, Hong Guk-yeong(洪國榮) and others played an instrumental role in enthroning King Jeongjo. And in the 2nd year of the new king’s reign, Dowager Queen Jeongsun issued a dynasty-wide message that a royal concubine should be selected shortly, in the spirit of exploring options to increase heir candidates(“Gwangjeosa, 廣儲嗣”). Then Park Jae-weon(朴在源) forwarded an appeal to the king, suggesting that diagnosing and treating Queen Hyo’eui’s illness should be the royal family’s top priority. Meanwhile, Hong committed a crime of engaging in succession issues to the throne, suggesting having his sister as Hong-bin(洪嬪). In the 4th year of King Jeongjo, Kim Chi-muk(金峙默) who is the one of the Hyo-ui s family members attacked the Musul(戊戌) Appellate for the crime of mentioning the sickness of the Queen. As a result, Park was dismissed from the government, exiled to local regions and died not before long. But, After Seo Jeong-su(徐鼎修) s mentions, Park’s loyalty earned him a consensus that his untimely death was not what he deserved. In his 12th year, King Jeongjo filled the seats of Three Secretariats, with individuals from each of the powerful factions operating inside the government. And in the next year, when Chae Je-gong(蔡濟恭) requested a posthumous title for Park, Jeongjo finally granted Park with a posthumous seat as the Bu-Jehak figure of the Hongmun-gwan office, as a gesture of encouraging peace and harmony among the three parties: the Westerners’ Noron and Soron factions as well as the Southerner party. Later, in the 1st year of king Sunjo when Oh Han-weon asked for additional posthumous titles for Park, Shim Hwan-ji agreed that Park be posthumously promoted to the Champan figure of the Ijo Ministry. Yet later, in the 4th year of Sunjo’s reign, Park was once again promoted to the Ijo Ministry’s Panseo figure, and in the 5th year received a title called Chung’heon(忠獻). Although he died, Park’s loyal remonstrance was duly remembered. The Shim faction in the early years of king Sunjo, inspired the Soron and Noron factions that not only remembered but experienced firsthand the incidents involving Park. And in 1806, they promoted the dismissal of Gyeongju Kim house members and some figures of the Noron faction’s Byeokpa segment [from the government] as a new ‘consensus,’ and brought about the so-called “Byeong’in-year Rectification.” In the 13th year of King Heonjong’s reign, Great Dowager Queen Sun’weon issued a message searching for royal concubine candidates, as the Dowager Queen Hyojeong had failed to produce an heir. Yi Seung-heon(李承憲) criticised fellow officials for not bothering to treat the Queen’s illness, and made impolite remarks regarding the Great Dowager Queen’s statement. The Yi appeal was essentially a political attack upon the Pung’yang Jo house, which Heonjong identified as a comparison of the ‘diligent suggestion(‘陳勉’)’ made by Park Jae-weon, and by which the vassals were reminded of the former kings’ effort of ‘keeping wise and meritorious at their sides(右賢左戚),’ in addition former vassals’ hope of that, as a ‘noble consensus(“淸論”).’
Just as Jang-Bogo was at the center of the ‘Silla Diaspora’, which moved to the Tang and Japan in the 9th century, there is a ‘Korean Diaspora’(overseas Koreans) in the 21st century. Although the gap of 1200 years has been laid, the 9th and 21st centuries have something in common. First of all, the 9th century was an era of openness when East Asia s oceans were wide open and cultural exchanges were brisk. The sea route was expanding beyond East Asia to the ‘maritime silk road’ that stretches to Southeast Asia, India, Arabia and Europe. Meanwhile, in the second half of the 7th century, The war has spread to the level of the East Asian War from the level of the war among the three kingdoms of Korea. while the Great Disaster took place and large-scale migration occurred, making the ‘Silla Diaspora’ of Tang and Japan a large scale in the 9th century. Jang-Bogo noted the ‘Silla Diaspora’, which was gaining considerable economic status in the era of opening up in the 9th century, and consolidated and utilized them to achieve great success. The 21st century is an era of greater openness, as it is called the ‘global era’. Before that, however, in the 20th century, we had to suffer the pain of loss of national sovereignty and the terrible situation of the Korean Peninsula being hit by the Korean War, which is the microcosm of the World War. Meanwhile, massive overseas migration took place, which is the basis of the ‘Korean Diaspora’. In the era of global openness in the 21st century, the Republic of Korea is becoming one of the world s top 10 powers, and the ‘Korean Diaspora’ has grown significantly around the world, making its own rise. And Hansang, the ‘Jang-Bogo of the 21st century’, is seeking ways to co-prosperity by bringing together ‘Korean Diaspora’ as a Korean community with the government of their native Republic of Korea. That s why the historical experience that Jang-Bogo assembled and utilized the ‘Silla Diaspora’ in the 9th century comes dearly at this point in the 21st century.
Lee, Yong-Seol was one of the representatives of Severance Medical College and participated directly in the preparatory process of the Korean Independence Youth Party s independence movement. He participated in activities such as mobilization of students, distribution of the Declaration of independence, and publication of the Independent during the 3.1 movement. His Beijing asylum process is presumed to be related to a secret network linked by Gang Byung - Pil and Seo Wol-Bo, and The object is to continue his studies. Lee Yong-seol had worked as an intern at the Hospital of Peking Uion Medical College to launch Korea Young Men s Christian Association. And he supported Bohabdan and Military council in Beijing. However, he did not directly engage with the independence movement in Beijing while interacting with Shin Cha-ho, etc. He became a prep member of The Young Korean Academy in June, 1922, in agreement with Ahn Chang-ho s theory of independence movement and the purpose of The Young Korean Academy. In the middle of 1922, he leaved for home through compromise with the Japanese Government-General of Korea.
In 1919, the police of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was launched as the police bureau. Since then, the police of the provisional government have been changed on the basis of law and system. During the period of Shanghai, the police of the provisional government consisted of the Central Police Agency, the local police organization that consisted of the Gyeongmusa(警務司) and Uikyungdae(義警隊). In 1940, the police force was established, mainly in charge of protecting the provisional government, and was reorganized into the Gyeongmusa under the revised ‘Korea Provisional Government Enforcement Central Control System’. Organized in October 1941, the Gyeonweedae(警衛隊) was authorized to organize in 1943 under the Korean National Guard. And In 1944, the organization officially became a direct home affairs body in the undercover central government, along with the general affairs, civil affairs and public affairs. The captain of the guard was concurrently the chief of the police department. The main duty of the Gyeonwedae was to guard the Provisional Government building and to protect the factors. In 1945, members of the Gyeongmu department and Gyeonweedae were assigned special duties as the provisional government focused more on collecting information on the enemy and the initial work. In early 1945, a young man from a school soldier entered the Gyeonweedae. They were tasked with protecting the government and protecting the factors in the middle of the interim government. The last mission of Gyeonweedae was to return to their homeland, protecting the temporary government factor.
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