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The present study investigates the functional features of college EFL teacher corpus (Kwon & Lee, 2014) from general English classes offered by four different universities in Korea. The study examines 3 to 5 lexical bundles extracted using the corpus analysis tool, WordSmith, in order to highlight college EFL teacher corpus’ functional features. The study analyzes the functional distribution and frequency of lexical bundles in college EFL teacher corpus. The results show that the Korean English teachers produced more lexical bundles than the native English teachers; however, the distribution of lexical bundles was very similar between two groups. Both groups in college EFL teacher corpus produced more lexical bundles in stance expressions, which could be characteristic of college EFL classes. The corpus constructed for this study is available online and is open for use by anyone. This paper shows further how to use the online corpus listed for practical applications.
The main purpose of this study is to understand the effects of task complexity on test-takers’ linguistic output and raters’ evaluation of test-takers’ performance. One hundred and fifty-six audio clips by 52 non-native-English speaking international teaching assistants (ITAs) at a U.S. university were graded by two raters with four different rating scales a holistic scale, a pronunciation scale, a vocabulary and grammar scale, and a pace and fluency scale. The clips were then transcribed and coded for linguistic complexity, accuracy, and fluency measures per AS-unit. Task complexity was evaluated based on the resource-directing task complexity criterion from Robinson’s (2001b) Triadic Componential Framework. The grades and linguistic measures were statistically analyzed using multiple Friedman tests and follow-up pairwise comparisons with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. It was found that only one of the fluency measures, phonation-time ratio, and fluency scores, not holistic scores, with high and low task complexity, were statistically different with mid-effect sizes. In the follow-up interview, raters reported that they tended to adjust their holistic rating severity according to task complexity. Implications of the findings for rater training and evaluation rubric design are discussed.
Reading strategies play a significant role in improving reading comprehension achievement, and therefore, reading strategy training supports different levels of leaners by explicitly teaching and modeling reading strategies. Flipped learning, a instructional method which has developed alongside the rise of educational technology, may be useful for reading strategy training, which delivers lecture on reading strategies through online platforms and uses class time for practicing strategies with student-centered activities. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of flipped reading strategy training for learners representing different levels of reading ability. The participants were 103 university students in TOEIC reading courses and divided into three groups, according to reading proficiency (low-intermediate-high). Pre- and post-tests were used to measure the learners’ reading achievement, and a reading strategy survey was distributed to inquire about their use of strategies. The results showed that 1) the students’ reading ability was significantly improved across all three levels; 2) the students used learner strategies most frequently, test-management strategies next-most-often, and test-wise strategies least of all. Further, there was a significant difference in the use of strategies across the three levels of reading ability. From these findings, the study suggests possibilities for adopting flipped reading strategy training in English reading classes, especially in those engaged in test-preparation classrooms.
This article investigates the test-taking strategy use by high school third graders and CSAT (College Scholastic Aptitude Test) retakers. The study employed the following quantitative data analyses. One hundred third-grade high school students and sixty-four CSAT retakers in Jeonju participated in a survey asking about their test-taking strategy use. Their English reading comprehension test scores for the National CSAT mock test, taken in March, 2019, were also collected. The strategy checklist used in this survey was adapted from the Multiple-Choice Strategy Checklist (Anderson et al., 1991) and Cognitive and Metacognitive Questionnaire (Phaiti, 2003). The findings of this study are as follows: First, out of the 35 strategies in the strategy checklist, 23 got a mean score above 3.00, which means that the participants used the test-taking strategies quite frequently. Second, the higher-proficiency learners used more strategies overall than the lower-proficiency learners. Since there is a significant correlation between the test-taking strategies and the English reading comprehension score of the CSAT, further research must be taken and deployed to encourage students to use the test-taking strategies.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the trends of the studies on Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory in English education in Korea. For this purpose, 38 research papers related to Vygotsky’s theory of English education were collected from DBPIA, KISS, NDSI, and RISS databases. The papers were analyzed according to two standards: namely, their influencing factors and learning effects. The results are as follows: First, the studies on Vygotsky’s theory in English education have increased steadily, employing university students as participants. In the early 2000’s, the studies that focused on teaching methods were developed along various lines such as writing, speaking, basic English skills and learning motivation. Second, the research studies involving cooperative learning with peers are shown to have had the most positive impact, and the dynamic assessment helped to assess the various aspects of the learners. Third, the studies examining learning effects were subcategorized into the affective and the cognitive domains. The results demonstrate that changes in learners’ perception are most frequently observed in studies exploring the learners’ affective domain, while those in the cognitive domain look at changes in the learners’ writing and speaking abilities. Based on the above-mentioned results, pedagogical implications and suggestions for further research are discussed.
This study investigates the current status of English private tutoring and after-school programs and their effect on English achievement among young learners. In this study, 6th graders’ data from the 2014 Gyeonggi Education Panel Study (GEPS) were employed. Three statistical analyses(descriptive, t-test, and stepwise regression) were performed using SPSS version 26.0. The major findings of the study are as follows. More than 90% of the 6th graders in the study received English private tutoring and the purpose of which is to improve grades or to better understand the content of English class at school. Students with private tutoring received higher scores on the English test and had a higher level of English class understanding and concentration time than those without private tutoring. However, students who took part in after-school English programs received lower scores on the English test and had a lower level of English class understanding and concentration time than those who did not. The stepwise regression analysis reveals that ‘cost spent on private tutoring’ turns out to be the most powerful predictor of English achievement, followed by ‘satisfaction with after-school English programs’. The paper also discusses practical implications for promoting after-school English programs, based on the findings of the study.
The purpose of the present paper is to explore the actual condition of aligning instruction and assessment in high school English classes. Aligning instruction and assessment is important in that if the contents and the activities dealt in the classes are not adequately aligned with the assessment, the students’ motivation and participation in the classes may decrease. In order to explore the actual condition of the alignment of instruction and assessment in the high school English classroom, class observations and focus-group interviews were implemented. The results of the class observation showed that when there is active students’ participation in the classroom activities, these activities and the assessment are well aligned. However, when the class is composed of teacher-oriented lectures, the alignment of the instruction and the assessment is inadequate. In the interviews, the teachers said that it is difficult to make sufficient time for the activities and the assessment in the classes due the contents that they have to cover during the semester. In order to enhance instruction and assessment alignment, developing teachers’ competence in aligning classroom activities and the assessment is necessary.
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