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  • 발행기관: 대한생리학회
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대한생리학회지

  • 발행기관 : 대한생리학회(Korean Physiological Society)
  • 출처구분 : 학회
  • 간행물유형 : 학술저널
  • 발행주기 : 연 2회간 (발행월:6,12)
  • Print ISSN : 0300-4015
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The Role of Nitric Oxide for the Regulation of Vascular Tone in Health and Disease
Thiemermann, Christoph
대한생리학회 / 대한생리학회지 제30권 제2호 / 1996 / 187-195 (9 pages)
의약학>의학일반 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 생리학
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Isolation and Characterization of Endosome Subpopulation in Chinese Hamster Ovarian Cells
Suh, Duk-Joon;Park, Mi-Yeon;Jung, Dong-Keun;Bae, Hae-Rahn
대한생리학회 / 대한생리학회지 제30권 제2호 / 1996 / 197-208 (12 pages)
의약학>의학일반 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 생리학
초록보기
Endosomes lower their internal pH by an ATP-driven proton pump, which is critical to dissociation of many receptor-ligand complexes, the first step in the intracellular sorting of internalized receptors and ligands. Endosomes are known to exhibit n great range of pH values that can vary between 5.0 and 7.0 within a single cell although the factors that regulate endosomal pH remain uncertain. To evaluate the morphological and topological differences of endosomes in the different stages, confocal microscopy was used. The early endosomes labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran for 10 min at 37℃ were identifiable at the peripheral and tubule-vesicular endosome compartment. In contrasat, the late endosomes formed by 10 min pulse and 20 min trace were located deeper in the cytoplasm and showed more vesicular features than early endosomes. For the purpose of determining whether ATP-dependent acidification was heterogeneous and whether the differences in acidification were attributed to differences in the activity of Na+-K+-ATPase and/or Cl- channel, endocytic compartments were fractionated into subpopulation using percoll gradient and measured ATP-dependent acidification. While all fractions exhibited ATP-dependent acidification activity, both the initial rate of acidification and extent of proton translocation were lower in early endosomes and gradually increased in late endosomes. Phosphorylation by PKA and ATP enhanced ATP-dependent acidification in both early and late endosomes, hut there was no difference in the degree of enhancement by phosphorylation between two subpopulations. When ATP-dependent acidification was determined in the presence or absence of vanadate (Na3VO3) or ouabain, only early endosomes exhibited the vanadate or ouabain dependent stimulation of acidification activity, suggesting the inhibition of Na+-K+-ATPase. Therefore, it seems probable that the inhibition of early endosome acidification by Na+-K+-ATPase observed in vitro at least in part plays a physiological role in controlling the acidification of early endosomes in vivo.
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Modulatory Effect of the Tyrosine Kinase and Tyrosine Phosphatase on the ACh-activated K+ Channel in Adult Rat Atrial Cells
Chang, Kyeong-Jae;Rhie, Sang-Ho;Heo, Ilo;Kim, Yang-Mi;Haan, Jae-Hee;Hong, Seong-Geun
대한생리학회 / 대한생리학회지 제30권 제2호 / 1996 / 209-218 (10 pages)
의약학>의학일반 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 생리학
초록보기
Acetylcholine (ACh) activates the inwardly rectifying muscarinic K+ channel in rat atrial cells via pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G-protein (Gk) coupled with the muscarinic receptor (mAChR). Although this K+ (KACh) channel function has reported to be modulated by the phosphorylation process, a kinase and phosphatase involved in these processes are still unclear. Since either PKA or PKC was not effective on this ATP-modulation, the present study examined the possible involvement of the protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) and protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) in the function of the KACh Channel. In the inside-out (I/O) patch preparation excised from the adult rat atrial cell, when activated by 10 μM ACh in the pipette and 100 μM GTP in the bath, the mean open time (τo) and the channel activity (KACh) was 1.13 ms (n=5) and 0.19 (n=6), respectively. Following the application of 1 mM ATP into the bath, τo increased by 34% (1.54 ms, n=5) and KACh by 66% (0.28, n=6). Channel function elevated by ATP was lasted after washout of ATP. However, this ATP-induced increase in the KACh channel function did not occur in pretreated cells with genistein (50 ~ 100 μM), a selective PTK inhibitor, but occurred in pretreated cells with equimolar daidzein, a negative control of the genistein. On the contrary, PTP which acts on tyrosine residue conversely reversed both ATP-induced increased τo by 32% (1.20 ms, n=3) and KACh by 41% (0.15, n=3), respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that KACh channel may, at least partly, be regulated by the tyrosyl phosphorylation, although it is unclear where this process exerts on the muscarinic signal transduction pathway comprising the mAChR-Gk-the KACh channel.
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Cholinergic Role on Insulin Action in Exocrine Secretion of the Isolated Rat Pancreas
Lee, Yun-Lyul;Park, Hyung-Seo;Kim, Myoung-Sub;Kwon, Hyeok-Yil;Park, Hyoung-Jin
대한생리학회 / 대한생리학회지 제30권 제2호 / 1996 / 219-230 (12 pages)
의약학>의학일반 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 생리학
초록보기
In order to investigate intra-pancreatic cholinergic roles on insulin action in exocrine secretion, the pancreas was isolated from rats and continuously perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit solution. Intra-arterial infusion of insulin (100 nM) or cholecystokinin (CCK, 14 pM) alone resulted in stimulation of the volume flow and amylase output. Also insulin potentiated the action of CCK in the exocrine secretion. Tetrodotoxin and atropine completely abolished the potentiating action of insulin and CCK as well as the action of insulin alone, but did not change the action of CCK alone. In order to see an effect of intra-pancreatic neural activation on the insulin action, electrical field stimulation (EFS) with parameters of 20 V, 2 msec and 8 Hz was applied to the isolated pancreas for 10 min under 2.5 or 18 mM glucose background. The EFS voltage-dependently elevated the flow rate and amylase output, and potentiated exocrine secretion in 18 mM glucose infusion compared with 2.5 mM glucose. The potentiating effects of EFS and 18 mM glucose were not observed in the streptozotocin-treated pancreas although it was perfused with 18 mM glucose. However, it was restored when the diabetic pancreas was perfused with porcine insulin(100 nM). Tetrodotoxin and atropine inhibited the pancreatic secretion induced by EFS with the background of 18 mM glucose. The results of present investigation indicate that the intra-pancreatic cholinergic tone exerts a stimulatory influence on the action of insulin in pancreatic exocrine secretion of rats.
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Decreased GLUT 4 mRNA Levels did not Related with Degree of Hyperglycemia in Skeletal Muscles of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats
Park, So-Young;Kim, Jong-Yeon;Kim, Yong-Woon;Lee, Suck-Kang
대한생리학회 / 대한생리학회지 제30권 제2호 / 1996 / 231-236 (6 pages)
의약학>의학일반 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 생리학
초록보기
In our previous study (Kim et al, 1991), GLUT 4 protein content correlated negatively with plasma glucose levels in skeletal muscles of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Thus, in this study, to confirm whether expression of GLUT 4 correlate negatively with degree of hyperglycemia, we measured levels of GLUT 4 mRNA in red and white gastrocnemius muscles in STZ-induced mild and severe diabetic rats. Rats were randomly assigned to control, mild, and severe diabetic groups, and the diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal administration of STZ. The experiment was carried out 10 days after STZ administration. Gastrocnemius red and white muscles were used fur the measurement of GLUT 4 expression. Plasma glucose levels of mild and severe diabetic rats were increased compared to control rats (control, mild, and severe diabetes; 6.4±0.32, 9.4±0.68, and 22.0±0.58 mmol/L, respectively). Plasma insulin levels of mild and severe diabetic rats were decreased compared to control rats (control, mild, and severe diabetes; 198±37, l14±14, and 90±15 pmol/L, respectively). GLUT 4 mRNA levels of gastrocnemius red muscles in mild and severe diabetic rats were decreased compared to control rats (64±1.2% and 71±2.0% of control, respectively), but GLUT 4 mRNA levels in gastrocnemius white muscles were unaltered in diabetic rats. In summary, GLUT 4 mRNA levels were decreased in STZ-induced diabetic rats but did not correlated negatively with degree of hyperglycemia, and this result suggest that the regulatory mechanisms of decreased GLUT 4 mRNA levels are hypoinsulinemia and/or other metabolic factor but not hyperglycemia. And regulation of GLUT 4 expression in STZ-induced diabetes between red and white enriched skeletal muscles may be related to a fiber specific gene regulatory mechanism.
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Effect of Two Hours Head-down Bedrest on Orthostatic Tolerance
Park, Won-Kyun;Lyo, Woon-Jae;Bae, Jae-Hoon;Song, Dae-Kyu;Chae, E-Up
대한생리학회 / 대한생리학회지 제30권 제2호 / 1996 / 237-248 (12 pages)
의약학>의학일반 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 생리학
초록보기
This study was carried out to determine the effect of -6˚ head-down bedrest on the cardiovascular and hormonal responses to orthostasis and to evaluate the mechanism of orthostatic intolerance. Ten healthy young men were changed the body position from -6˚ head-down or supine bedrest for 2 hr to 70˚ head-up tilt for 20 min. During the bedrest, there were no differences in hemodynamic and hormonal changes between the head-down and the supine positions. However, the tendency of decreased end-diastolic volume and increased cardiac contractility during the later period of 2 hr showed that the cardiovascular adaptation could be accelerated within a relatively short period in the head-down bedrest. During the head-up tilt, presyncopal signs were developed in five subjects of the supine bedrest, and one of the same subjects of the head-down bedrest. In the tolerant subjects, the increase in cardiac contractility and plasma epinephrine level during the bend-up tilt was greater following the head-down bedrest than that following the supine bedrest to compensate for reduced venous return. The intolerant subjects showed the greater decrease in end-diastolic and stroke volume, and the greater increase in heart rate during the head-up tilt than the tolerant subjects. Cardiac contractility and plasma epinephrine level were remarkably increased. However, arterial pressure was not maintained at the level for the appropriate compensation of the reduced venous return. It seems that the tolerance to orthostasis is more effective after the short-term head-down bedrest than after the supine bedrest, and the secretion of epinephrine induces the higher cardiac performance as a compensatory mechanism fur the reduced venous return during the orthostasis following the head-down bedrest than the supine bedrest.
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Effect of Probenecid on Tetraethylammonium (TEA) Transport Across Basolateral Membrane of Rabbit Proximal Tubule
Choi, Tae-Ryong;Kim, Yong-Keun;
대한생리학회 / 대한생리학회지 제30권 제2호 / 1996 / 249-256 (8 pages)
의약학>의학일반 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 생리학
초록보기
The effect of probenecid on the transport of tetraethylammonium (TEA) was studied in renal cortical slices and isolated membrane vesicles to investigate the interaction of organic anion with the organic cation transport system in proximal tubule. Probenecid reversibly inhibited TEA uptake by renal cortical slices in a dose-dependent manner over the concentration range of 1 and 5 mM. The efflux of TEA was not affected by the presence of 3 mM probenecid. Kinetic analysis indicated that probenecid decreased Vmax without significant change in Km. Probenecid inhibited significantly tissue oxygen consumption at concentrations of 3 and 5 mM. However, probenecid did not significantly reduce TEA uptake in brush border and basolateral membrane vesicles prepared from renal cortex even at a concentration as high as 10 mM. These results indicate that probenecid reduces TEA uptake in cortical slices by inhibiting tissue metabolism rather than by an interaction with the organic ration transporter.
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Effects of High Glucose Levels on the Protein Kinase C Signal Transduction Pathway in Primary Cultured Renal Proximal Tubule Cells
Han, Ho-Jae;Kang, Ju-Won;Park, Kwon-Moo
대한생리학회 / 대한생리학회지 제30권 제2호 / 1996 / 257-268 (12 pages)
의약학>의학일반 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 생리학
초록보기
Diabetes mellitus is associated with a wide range of pathophysiologic changes in the kidney. This study was designed to examine the mechanisms by which glucose modulates the expression of polarized membrane transport functions in primary cultured rabbit renal proximal tubule cells. Results are as follows: The rate of 30 minute Rb+ uptake was significantly higher(137.76±5.40%) in primary renal tubular cell cultures treated with 20 mM glucose than that of 5 mM glucose. Not the level of mRNA for the α subunit of Na, K-ATPase but that of β subunit was elevated in primary cultures treated with high glucose. The initial rate of methyl-α-D-glucopyranoside(α-MG) uptake was significantly lower(71.91±3.02%) in monolayers treated with 20 mM glucose than that of 5 mM glucose. There was a tendency of an increase in phlorizin binding site in cells treated with 5 mM glucose. However, 3-O-methyl-D-glucose(3-O-MG) uptake was not affected by glucose concentration in culture media. TPA inhibited Rb+ uptake by 63.61±1.94 and 45.80±1.36% and α-MG uptake by 48.54±3.69 and 41.87±6.70% in the cells treated with 5 and 20 mM glucose, respectively. Also TPA inhibited mRNA expression of Na/glucose cotransporter in cells grown in 5mM glucose medium. cAMP significantly stimulated α-MG uptake by 114.65±5.70% in cells treated with 5mM glucose, while it did not affect α-MG uptake in cell treated with 20 mM glucose. However, cAMP inhibited Rb+ uptake by 76.69±4.16 and 66.87±2.41% in cells treated with 5 and 20 mM glucose, respectively. In conclusion, the activity of the renal proximal tubular Na,K-ATPase is elevated in high glucose concentration. In contrast, the activity of the Na/glucose cotransport system is inhibited. High glucose may in part affect the activity of the Na,K-ATPase and the Na/glucose cotransport system by controlling the protein kinase C and/or A signal transduction pathway in primary cultured renal proximal tubule cells.
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Endothelium-dependent Contraction of Aorta in One-kidney, One-clip Goldblatt Hypertensive Rat
Jeon, Byeong-Hwa;Lee, Kug-Hee;Kim, Hoe-Suk;Kim, Se-Hoon;Chang, Seok-Jong
대한생리학회 / 대한생리학회지 제30권 제2호 / 1996 / 269-278 (10 pages)
의약학>의학일반 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 생리학
초록보기
The mechanism of impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation in the aorta of one-kidney, one clip Goldblatt hypertensive (1K,1C-GBH) rats was investigated. 8 week-old Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were made hypertensive by left renal artery stenosis with contralateral nephrectomy. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was significantly reduced in 1K,1C-GBH rats as compared with WKY rats. However, the relaxation by sodium nitroprusside in 1K,1C-GBH rats was not reduced as compared with WKY rats. The impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation in 1K,1C-GBH rats was partially restored by the pretreatment of indomethacin or SQ29548. When the nitric oxide production was inhibited by L-nitroarginine methyl ester, acetylcholine (ACh) induced a endothelium-dependent contraction that was greater in 1K,1C-GBH rats than in WKY rats. Endothelium-dependent contraction by ACh was completely abolished by indomethacin or SQ29548. However, imidazole, tranylcypromine and superoxide dismutase did not affect the endothelium-dependent contraction in 1K,1C-GBH rats. These results suggest that impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation in the 1K,1C-GBH rats might be due to the simultaneous release of EDCF, and that prostaglandin B2 may be involved as a mediator of endothelium-dependent contraction.
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Effect of Cadmium on Organic Acid Transport System in Renal Basolateral Membrane
Kim, Ghi-Chan;Kim, Kyoung-Ryong;Kim, Jee-Yeun;Park, Yang-Saeng
대한생리학회 / 대한생리학회지 제30권 제2호 / 1996 / 279-288 (10 pages)
의약학>의학일반 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 생리학
초록보기
Chronic exposure to cadmium impairs various renal tubular functions, including organic acid (anion) secretion. To investigate the mechanism of cadmium-induced alterations in the organic anion transport system, kinetics of p-aminohippurate (PAH) uptake was studied in renal cortical basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV) isolated from cadmium-intoxicated rats (adult male Sprague-Dawley). Cadmium intoxication was induced by subcutaneous injections of CdCl2 (2 mg Cd/kg per day) for 3 weeks. The renal plasma membrane vesicles were prepared by Percoll gradient centrifugation. The vesicular uptake of 14C-PAH was determined by rapid filtration technique using Millipore filter. Cadmium intoxication resulted in a marked attenuation of Na+-dependent, α-ketoglutarate (αKG)-driven PAH uptake with no changes in Na+ and αKG-independent transport component. Kinetic analysis indicated that Vmax, but not Km, of the Na+-dependent, αKG-driven component was reduced. A similar reduction of Na+-dependent, αKG-driven PAH uptake was observed in normal membrane vesicles directly exposed to inorganic cadmium in vitro, and this was accompanied by an inhibition of both Na+-dependent αKG uptake and αKG-PAH exchange activity. These results indicate that during chronic exposure to cadmium, free cadmium ions liberated in the proximal tubular cytoplasm directly interact with the basolateral membrane and impair the active transport capacity for organic anions, most likely due to an inhibition of both Na+-dicarboxylate cotransporter and dicarboxylate-organic anion antiporter activities.
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Functional Changes of Spinal Sensory Neurons Following Gray Matter Degeneration
Park, Sah-Hoon;Park, Jong-Seong;Jeong, Han-Seong
대한생리학회 / 대한생리학회지 제30권 제2호 / 1996 / 289-297 (9 pages)
의약학>의학일반 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 생리학
초록보기
Excitatory amino acids (EAA) are thought to play an important role in producing cell death associated with ischemic and traumatic spinal cord injury. The present study was carried out to determine if the response characteristics of spinal sensory neurons in segments adjacent to degeneration sites induced by EAA are altered following these morphological changes. Intraspinal injections of quisqualic acid (QA) produced neuronal degeneration and spinal cavitation of gray matter. The severity of lesions was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with a non-NMDA antagonist NBQX. In extracellular single unit recordings, dorsal horn neurons in QA injected animal showed the increased mechanosensitivity, which included a shift to the left in the stimulus-response relationship, an increased background activity and an increase in the duration of after-discharge responses. Neuronal responses, especially the C-fiber response, to suprathreshold electrical stimulation of sciatic nerve also increased in most cases. These results suggest that altered functional states of neurons may be responsible for sensory abnormalities, e.g. allodynia and hyperalgesia, associated with syringomyolia and spinal cord injury.