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Psychiatry Investigation

  • 발행기관 : 대한신경정신의학회
  • 출처구분 : 학회
  • 간행물유형 : 학술저널
  • 발행주기 : 월간 (발행월:1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12)
  • Print ISSN : 1738-3684
  • Online ISSN : 1976-3026
  • 등재정보 : KCI 등재
Psychiatry Investigation
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13
Cognitive Impairment in Grandparents: A Systematic Review
Cognitive Impairment in Grandparents: A Systematic Review
Alexandra Rafael;Lídia Sousa;Sónia Martins;Lia Fernandes
대한신경정신의학회 / Psychiatry Investigation 제18권 제7호 / 2021 / 593-602 (10 pages)
의약학>정신과학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 정신과학
초록보기
Objective To evaluate the relationship between grandparenting and the cognitive impairment in older persons. Methods The protocol was submitted to the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO), registration number: CRD42018105849. Authors conducted a systematic review, following “Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses” (PRISMA) recommendations. Electronic databases were accessed through august 2018: PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and EBSCOhost. Selection of records and quality appraisal were made by two reviewers, independently. Results A total of 178 records was found, after removing duplicates. From those, 17 were considered eligible for integral text reading and eight were included: five original studies, one classic review and two editorials. From the five original studies included, four suggested a positive effect on cognition resulting from grandparenting and one suggested that there was no evidence for a causal effect. Though the boundary was not consensual, some studies suggested that a higher frequency of grandparenting has a negative impact on cognition. Conclusion Overall, studies suggested a trend towards a positive effect of grandchild care on grandparents’ cognition. However, there was a significant heterogeneity between methodologies and a significant risk of bias which can hamper conclusions, indicating the need for further and more robust research. Psychiatry Investig 2021;18(7):593-602
8-Hydroxy-2’-Deoxyguanosine and Reactive Oxygen Species as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Mental Illnesses: A Meta-Analysis
8-Hydroxy-2’-Deoxyguanosine and Reactive Oxygen Species as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Mental Illnesses: A Meta-Analysis
Xue Xin Goh;Pek Yee Tang;Shiau Foon Tee
대한신경정신의학회 / Psychiatry Investigation 제18권 제7호 / 2021 / 603-618 (16 pages)
의약학>정신과학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 정신과학
초록보기
Objective Mental illnesses may be caused by genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies reported that mental illnesses were accompanied by higher oxidative stress level. However, the results were inconsistent. Thus, present meta-analysis aimed to analyse the association between oxidative DNA damage indicated by 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) or 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), which has been widely used as biomarker of oxidative stress, and mental illnesses, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression. As oxidative DNA damage is caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS), systematic review and meta-analysis were also conducted to analyse the relationship between ROS and these three mental illnesses. Methods Studies from 1964 to 2020 (for oxidative DNA damage) and from 1907 to 2021 (for ROS) in Pubmed and Scopus databases were selected and analysed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis version 2 respectively. Data were subjected to meta-analysis for examining the effect sizes of the results. Publication bias assessments, heterogeneity assessments and subgroup analyses based on biological specimens, patient status, illness duration and medication history were also conducted. Results This meta-analysis revealed that oxidative DNA damage was significantly higher in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder based on random-effects models whereas in depressed patients, the level was not significant. Since heterogeneity was present, results based on random-effects model was preferred. Our results also showed that oxidative DNA damage level was significantly higher in lymphocyte and urine of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder respectively. Besides, larger effect size was observed in inpatients and those with longer illness duration and medication history. Significant higher ROS was also observed in schizophrenic patients but not in depressive patients. Conclusion The present meta-analysis found that oxidative DNA damage was significantly higher in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder but not in depression. The significant association between deoxyguanosines and mental illnesses suggested the possibility of using 8-OHdG or 8-oxodG as biomarker in measurement of oxidative DNA damage and oxidative stress. Higher ROS level indicated the involvement of oxidative stress in schizophrenia. The information from this study may provide better understanding on pathophysiology of mental illnesses.
Effects of Virtual Reality-Based Cognitive Training in the Elderly with and without Mild Cognitive Impairment
Effects of Virtual Reality-Based Cognitive Training in the Elderly with and without Mild Cognitive Impairment
Seri Maeng;Jin Pyo Hong;Won-Hyoung Kim;Hyeyoung Kim;Seo-Eun Cho;Jae Myeong Kang;Kyoung-Sae Na;Seok-Hee Oh;Jung Woon Park;Jae Nam Bae;Seong-Jin Cho
대한신경정신의학회 / Psychiatry Investigation 제18권 제7호 / 2021 / 619-627 (9 pages)
의약학>정신과학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 정신과학
초록보기
Objective This study aimed to introduce a 4-week long fully immersive virtual reality-based cognitive training (VRCT) program that could be applied for both a cognitively normal elderly population and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In addition, we attempted to investigate the neuropsychological effects of the VRCT program in each group. Methods A total of 56 participants, 31 in the MCI group and 25 in the cognitively normal elderly group, underwent eight sessions of VRCT for 4 weeks. In order to evaluate the effects of the VRCT, the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Packet was administered before and after the program. The program’ s safety was assessed using a simulator sickness questionnaire (SSQ), and availability was assessed using the presence questionnaire. Results After the eighth session of the VRCT program, cognitive improvement was observed in the ability to learn new information, visuospatial constructional ability, and frontal lobe function in both groups. At the baseline evaluation, based on the SSQ, the MCI group complained of disorientation and nausea significantly more than the cognitively normal elderly group did. However, both groups showed a reduction in discomfort as the VRCT program progressed. Conclusion We conclude that our VRCT program helps improve cognition in both the MCI group and cognitively normal elderly group. Therefore, the VRCT is expected to help improve cognitive function in elderly populations with and without MCI.
Differences in Brain Morphology between Hydrocephalus Ex Vacuo and Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus
Differences in Brain Morphology between Hydrocephalus Ex Vacuo and Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus
Minkyung Kim;Sun-Won Park;Jun-Young Lee;Hongrae Kim;Jung Hyo Rhim;Soowon Park;Jee-Young Lee;Hwancheol Son;Yu Kyeong Kim;Sang Hyung Lee
대한신경정신의학회 / Psychiatry Investigation 제18권 제7호 / 2021 / 628-635 (8 pages)
의약학>정신과학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 정신과학
초록보기
Objective The distinction between idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) and hydrocephalus ex vacuo caused by encephalic volume loss remains to be established. This study aims to investigate radiological parameters as clinically useful tools to discriminate iNPH from hydrocephalus ex vacuo caused by Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Methods A total of 54 patients with ventriculomegaly (iNPH, 25; hydrocephalus ex vacuo, 29) were recruited in this study. Consequently, nine radiological parameters were compared between iNPH and hydrocephalus ex vacuo using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results A small callosal angle (CA), the Sylvian fissure dilatation, and absence of narrowing of superior parietal sulci discriminated the iNPH group from the hydrocephalus ex vacuo group (p<0.05). The final binary logistic regression model included narrowing of superior parietal sulci, degrees of the CA, and height of the Sylvian fissure after controlling for age and global Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR). The composite score made from these three indicators (narrowing of superior parietal sulci, degrees of the CA, and height of the Sylvian fissure) was statistically different between iNPH and hydrocephalus ex vacuo. Conclusion The narrowing of the CA, dilatation of the Sylvain fissure, and narrowing of superior parietal sulci may be used as radiological key indices and noninvasive tools for the differential diagnosis of iNPH from hydrocephalus ex vacuo.
The Gender-Sensitive Social Risk Factors for Internet Addiction in College Undergraduate Students
The Gender-Sensitive Social Risk Factors for Internet Addiction in College Undergraduate Students
Xia Lin;Jing-yan Gu;Wan-jun Guo;Ya-jing Meng;Hui-yao Wang;Xiao-jing Li;Wei Deng;Lian-sheng Zhao;Xiao-hong Ma;Ming-li Li;Ting Chen;S.K. Cheng;Tao Li
대한신경정신의학회 / Psychiatry Investigation 제18권 제7호 / 2021 / 636-644 (9 pages)
의약학>정신과학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 정신과학
초록보기
Objective The current study aims to explore precipitating and social risk factors for internet addiction (IA) in university undergraduate students, and to provide evidence for interventions and the early prevention of IA in different genders. Methods Four thousand eight hundred and fifty-eight college sophomores completed an online survey on their internet use-related behaviours and social risk factors. Results We found that more male (8.3%) than female students (5.4%) had moderate and severe IA. The main online activity in the moderate and severe IA groups was online gaming in males and online streaming in females. Roommates engaging in similar internetbased entertainment was a risk factor of IA only for males, while not being in a romantic relationship was a risk factor of IA for females only. Infatuation with the internet before college and adjustment problems for college life were shared risk factors for both genders in the mild and moderate IA groups. Conclusion IA was a common phenomenon in college students with shared and unique precipitating and social risk factors in males and females. The gender-sensitive risk factors for IA warranted earlier and individualized intervention and prevention strategies for IA in this population.
A Novel Robot-Assisted Kinematic Measure for Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Preliminary Study
A Novel Robot-Assisted Kinematic Measure for Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Preliminary Study
Aran Min;Johanna Inhyang Kim;Hak Jong Noh;Moon Sang Kim;Hyo-Shin Lee;Mun-Taek Choi;Kyuha Lee;Jun-Ho Seo;Ga Hyun Lee;Seong-kyu Kang;Dong Hyun Ahn
대한신경정신의학회 / Psychiatry Investigation 제18권 제7호 / 2021 / 645-651 (7 pages)
의약학>정신과학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 정신과학
초록보기
Objective Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. In contrast to neurocognitive measurements of inattention and impulsivity, there has been limited research regarding the objective measurement of hyperactivity in youths with ADHD. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the clinical effectiveness of a newly developed Robot-assisted Kinematic Measure for ADHD (RAKMA) in children with ADHD. Methods In total, 35 children with ADHD aged 5 to 12 years and 50 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited, and the parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist and the Korean ADHD Diagnostic Scale. RAKMA performance was represented by RAKMA stimulus-response and hyperactivity variables. We compared the RAKMA performance of those with ADHD and with that of HCs and also investigated the correlation between the RAKMA variables and ADHD clinical scale scores. Results Significant differences between the ADHD and HC groups were observed regarding most RAKMA variables, including correct reactions, commission errors, omission errors, reaction times, migration distance, and migration speed scores. Significant correlations were detected between various ADHD clinical scale scores and RAKMA variables. Conclusion The RAKMA was a clinically useful tool for objectively measuring hyperactivity symptoms in children with ADHD. Further studies with larger samples are warranted.
Social Isolation, Loneliness and Their Relationships with Mental Health Status in South Korea
Social Isolation, Loneliness and Their Relationships with Mental Health Status in South Korea
Myung Hyun Kim;Ji Hyun An;Hye Rin Lee;Seo Hyun Jeong;Soo Jin Hwang;Jin Pyo Hong
대한신경정신의학회 / Psychiatry Investigation 제18권 제7호 / 2021 / 652-660 (9 pages)
의약학>정신과학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 정신과학
초록보기
Objective This study aims to investigate the prevalence and psychological impact of social isolation and loneliness in South Korea. Loneliness and social isolation have been regarded as a risk to both physical and mental health. However, most studies have focused on the elderly; hence, there are limited studies on the characteristics of socially isolated or lonely people considering age. Methods A sample of 1,700 participants was selected from three major cities in South Korea. In-person interviews were conducted to evaluate loneliness, social isolation and mental health status. Results Among the participants, the prevalence of social isolation and loneliness was 17.8% and 4.1%, respectively. Males decreased the odds of loneliness (AOR 0.49, 95% CI=0.28-0.87), while increasing the odds of social isolation (AOR 1.44, 95% CI=1.12-1.86) after adjusting for age and sex. Greater depressive and social phobic symptoms were associated with increased odds of loneliness and social isolation. Conclusion Social isolation and loneliness are prevalent among Koreans and associated with depression, social phobic symptoms, and suicidality. This study provides a foundation for further research to investigate nationwide prevalence and a more in-depth analysis of loneliness and social isolation.
The Association between Unstable Employment and Suicidal Behavior in Young-Adult Precarious Workers
The Association between Unstable Employment and Suicidal Behavior in Young-Adult Precarious Workers
Yoanna Seong;Eun-Sun Lee;Subin Park
대한신경정신의학회 / Psychiatry Investigation 제18권 제7호 / 2021 / 661-669 (9 pages)
의약학>정신과학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 정신과학
초록보기
Objective Precarious workers have increased over the past two decades in South Korea. Employment instability, especially among young adults, is considered a serious social problem. The unstable employment status of precarious workers has negative impacts on their mental health, such as suicidal behavior. This study aims to identify the effect of the unstable employment conditions on the suicidal behavior of precarious workers. Methods An online survey was conducted with a panel sample of South Korean adults (n=797) who were precarious workers aged between 25-34 years. We applied Model 6 of SPSS PROCESS MACRO 3.5 to examine the multiple mediation effects of depression and anger in the relationship between employment instability and suicide. Results Unstable employment had no direct effect on suicidal behavior. The path of unstable employment to suicidal behavior via depression and anger had a significant indirect effect. However, employment and anger were negatively related. The indirect effect of depression and anger on the relation between unstable employment and suicidal behavior was statistically significant. Conclusion This study suggests an association between unstable employment and suicidal behavior, mediated by depression and anger. Specifically, a high level of unstable employment status increased depression. In contrast, a low level of unstable employment status increased anger, which ultimately led to an increase in suicidal behavior. These contrasting findings are likely to reflect the heterogeneity of precarious workers. Further longitudinal studies are necessary to identify the causality between precarious employment and suicidal behavior over time.
Movement-Related Potentials Associated with Motor Timing Errors as Determined by Internally Cued Movement Onset
Movement-Related Potentials Associated with Motor Timing Errors as Determined by Internally Cued Movement Onset
Jee Seon Ahn;Jun Ho Yoon;Jae-Jin Kim;Jin Young Park
대한신경정신의학회 / Psychiatry Investigation 제18권 제7호 / 2021 / 670-678 (9 pages)
의약학>정신과학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 정신과학
초록보기
Objective Accurate motor timing is critical for efficient motor control of behaviors; however, the effect of motor timing abilities on movement-related neural activities has rarely been investigated. The current study aimed to examine the electrophysiological correlates of motor timing errors. Methods Twenty-two healthy volunteers performed motor timing tasks while their electroencephalographic and electromyographic (EMG) activities were simultaneously recorded. The average of intervals between consecutive EMG onsets was calculated separately for each subject. Motor timing error was calculated as an absolute discrepancy value between the subjects’ produced and given time interval. A movement-related potential (MRP) analysis was conducted using readings from Cz electrode. Results Motor timing errors and MRPs were significantly correlated. Our principal finding was that only Bereitschaftpotential (BP) and motor potential (MP), not movement monitoring potential, were significantly attenuated in individuals with motor timing errors. Motor timing error had a significant effect on the amplitude of the late BP and MP. Conclusion The findings provide electrophysiological evidence that motor timing errors correlate with the neural processes involved in the generation of self-initiated voluntary movement. Alterations in MRPs reflect central motor control processes and may be indicative of motor timing deficits.
Cortical Morphometric Abnormality and Its Association with Working Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Cortical Morphometric Abnormality and Its Association with Working Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Fei-Fei Si;Lu Liu;Hai-Mei Li;Li Sun;Qing-Jiu Cao;Hanna Lu;Yu-Feng Wang;Qiu-Jin Qian
대한신경정신의학회 / Psychiatry Investigation 제18권 제7호 / 2021 / 679-687 (9 pages)
의약학>정신과학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 정신과학
초록보기
Objective Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder in children and adolescents. The present study investigated the cortical morphology features and their relationship with working memory (WM). Methods In the present study, a total of 36 medication naïve children with ADHD (aged from 8 to 15 years) and 36 age- and gendermatched healthy control (HC) children were included. The digit span test was used to evaluate WM. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to examine the characteristics of cortical morphology. Firstly, we compared the cortical morphology features between two groups to identify the potential structural alterations of cortical volume, surface, thickness, and curvature in children with ADHD. Then, the correlation between the brain structural abnormalities and WM was further explored in children with ADHD. Results Compared with the HC children, the children with ADHD showed reduced cortical volumes in the left lateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) (p=6.67×10-6) and left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) (p=3.88×10-4). In addition, the cortical volume of left lateral STG was positively correlated with WM (r=0.36, p=0.029). Conclusion Though preliminary, these findings suggest that the reduced cortical volumes of left lateral STG may contribute to the pathogenesis of ADHD and correlate with WM in children with ADHD.
The Effects of Inhumane Treatment in North Korean Detention Facilities on the Posttraumatic-Stress Disorder Symptoms of North Korean Refugees
The Effects of Inhumane Treatment in North Korean Detention Facilities on the Posttraumatic-Stress Disorder Symptoms of North Korean Refugees
So Hee Lee;Jin-Won Noh;Kyoung-Beom Kim;Hae-Woo Lee;Jin Yong Jun;Won Woong Lee
대한신경정신의학회 / Psychiatry Investigation 제18권 제7호 / 2021 / 688-694 (7 pages)
의약학>정신과학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 정신과학
초록보기
Objective The study investigated the effects of severe human rights abuses in North Korean on Posttraumatic-stress disorder (PTSD) in North Korean Refugees (NKRs). Methods The study included 300 NKRs (245 females and 55 males) who completed self-report questionnaires that assessed PTSD, experiences of imprisonment, and exposure to inhumane treatment, by authorities in North Korea. A moderation analysis was conducted using a hierarchical multiple regression model to determine whether a moderation effect existed. In the next step, a post-hoc probing procedure of the moderation effect was performed using multiple regression models that included conditional moderator variables. Results The influence of the frequency of being imprisoned on PTSD varied as a function of recurrent exposure to inhumane treatment or punishment by authorities. Experiences of imprisonment were associated with PTSD only among those who were exposed to recurrent violence, such as beating or torture, by North Korean authorities. Conclusion The present findings highlight the significant effects of human rights violations, such as the inhumane treatment of prisoners in North Korea, on the PTSD of NKRs.
The Economic Impact of Providing Evidence-Based Pediatric Mental Health Literacy Training to Primary Care Physicians
The Economic Impact of Providing Evidence-Based Pediatric Mental Health Literacy Training to Primary Care Physicians
Eden McCaffrey;Samuel Chang;Geraldine Farrelly;Abdul Rahman;Blair Ritchie;Roxanne Goldade;David Cawthorpe
대한신경정신의학회 / Psychiatry Investigation 제18권 제7호 / 2021 / 695-700 (6 pages)
의약학>정신과학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 정신과학
초록보기
Objective This paper presents a review of the current state of child and adolescent mental health literacy and provides current evidence of the economic impact of a pediatric mental health literacy (MHL) training program. Methods Employing a case-series-comparison design, physician referrals to urgent and specialized mental health services were linked with patient-specific information comparing referrals from MHL participants and non-participating physicians. The economic impact analysis was based on changes in the admitted referral frequency and lengths of stay for the MHL group, compared to themselves pretraining, and over the same time period compared to non-participating physicians. Results Average scheduled ambulatory admission rates per physician remained constant for trained and untrained pre-post groups. Average scheduled ambulatory admission wait time and length of stay reduced significantly post-training for MHL-trained physicians compared to pre-training and untrained physicians. In addition to reductions in length of stay, the total bed costs saving for emergency/inpatients admission deferrals was $2,932,112 or about $20,000 per MHL-trained physician. Conclusion The estimated economic impact of the MHL training shows a substantial return on investment and supports wider implementation. The MHL training program should be a key feature of mental health reform strategies, as well as continuing and undergraduate medical education.
Lifestyle Changes that Impact Personal Quality of Life in the COVID-19 Pandemic in South Korea
Lifestyle Changes that Impact Personal Quality of Life in the COVID-19 Pandemic in South Korea
Young Rong Bang;Seon-Cheol Park;Ok-Jin Jang;Joon Hee Kim;Eun Ok Kim;Seong Hwan Kim;Jae Hong Park
대한신경정신의학회 / Psychiatry Investigation 제18권 제7호 / 2021 / 701-707 (7 pages)
의약학>정신과학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 정신과학
초록보기
Objective We investigated which factors in psychological changes positively or negatively affect the quality of life to suggest desirable directions in the period of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods Online survey was conducted with 1,011 adults more than 19 years old in Busan, South Korea. Quality of life was measured using the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF. Questions regarding the psychological changes were about COVID-19-related concerns, distress in complying with quarantine guidelines, and interest in seeking something to do alone. Results Quality of life was perceived to be below average (mean±SD, 2.86±0.53). The more economic worries there were, the lower the quality of life in psychological, social relationships and environmental domains. The more distress one experienced when maintaining their personal hygiene, the higher the quality of life related to their physical health. Likewise, the more difficult it was to maintain social distances, the higher the quality of life associated with psychological and social relationships. The more interested someone was in how to spend time alone, the higher the quality of life in all domains significantly. Conclusion We can minimize the negative impacts of COVID-19 by maintaining economic stability, maintaining prosocial behaviors related to personal hygiene and making good use of personal time.