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홈 > 간행물 권호
  • 발행기관: 한국역학회
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Epidemiology and Health

  • 발행기관 : 한국역학회(Korean Society of Epidemiology)
  • 출처구분 : 학회
  • 간행물유형 : 학술저널
  • 발행주기 : 연간 (발행월:1)
  • Print ISSN : 2092-7193
  • Online ISSN : 2092-7193
Epidemiology and Health
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42
COVID-19 herd immunity in the absence of a vaccine: an irresponsible approach
COVID-19 herd immunity in the absence of a vaccine: an irresponsible approach
Jade Khalife1; Derrick VanGennep
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health Volume 43 / 2021 / 1-5 (5 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
초록보기
As severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to spread rapidly throughout the human population, the concept of “herd immunity” has attracted the attention of both decision-makers and the general public. In the absence of a vaccine, this entails that a large proportion of the population will be infected to develop immunity that would limit the severity and/or extent of subsequent outbreaks. We argue that adopting such an approach should be avoided for several reasons. There are significant uncertainties about whether achieving herd immunity is possible. If possible, achieving herd immunity would impose a large burden on society. There are gaps in protection, making it difficult to shield the vulnerable. It would defeat the purpose of avoiding harm caused by the virus. Lastly, dozens of countries are showing that containment is possible.
Health inequalities of 57,541 prisoners in Korea: a comparison with the general population
Health inequalities of 57,541 prisoners in Korea: a comparison with the general population
Seohyun Yoon;Young-Su Ju;Jaehong Yoon;Ji-Hwan Kim;Bokyoung Choi;Seung-Sup Kim
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health Volume 43 / 2021 / 1-6 (6 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
초록보기
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine health disparities between prisoners and the general population in Korea. METHODS: We sought to estimate the prevalence of 17 physical and mental diseases using the nationwide medication prescription dataset among the total population of prisoners (n=57,541) in Korea. Age- and sex- standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs) were estimated to compare the disease prevalence between the prisoners and the general population. The disease prevalence for the general population was calculated from the prescription dataset for a representative of the Korean population (n=926,246) from the 2013 Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort. Furthermore, the prevalence of these diseases was compared between prisoners and a low-income segment of the general population (n=159,781). RESULTS: Compared to the general population, prisoners had higher prevalence of almost all physical and mental diseases, including hyperlipidemia (SPR, 20.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 19.43 to 20.94), pulmonary tuberculosis (SPR, 9.58; 95% CI, 7.91 to 11.50), diabetes (SPR, 6.13; 95% CI, 5.96 to 6.31), cancer (SPR, 2.36; 95% CI, 2.07 to 2.68), and depression (SPR, 46.73; 95% CI, 44.14 to 49.43). When compared with the low-income population segment, higher prevalence were still found among prisoners for most diseases, including pulmonary tuberculosis (SPR, 6.39; 95% CI, 5.27 to 7.67) and depression (SPR, 34.71; 95% CI, 32.79 to 36.72). CONCLUSIONS: We found that prisoners were more likely to be unhealthy than the general population, even in comparison with a low-income segment of the general population in Korea.
The effect of demographic characteristics on the relationship between smoking and dry mouth in Iran: a cross-sectional, case-control study
The effect of demographic characteristics on the relationship between smoking and dry mouth in Iran: a cross-sectional, case-control study
Shahla Kakoei; Amir Hossein Nekouei; Sina Kakooei; Hamid Najafipour
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health Volume 43 / 2021 / 1-6 (6 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
초록보기
developOBJECTIVES: The effect of age, sex, and other demographic factors on the relationship between smoking and dry mouth remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics on the relationship between dry mouth, also known as xerostomia, and smoking. METHODS: This case-control study included 5,640 randomly-selected subjects from the second phase of the Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors Study, which observed 10,000 participants from 2014 to 2018. A checklist was used to record the participants’ demographic characteristics and smoking frequency. Each participant completed a six-item Fox questionnaire to measure dry mouth as a dependent variable. The interaction terms of daily cigarette smoking with sex, age, educational level, and marital status were entered into the model. Non-significant terms were removed using hierarchical model selection. RESULTS: Of the sample, 3,429 (60.8%) did not have dry mouth and were analyzed as controls, whereas 2,211 (39.2%) had xerostomia and were deemed to be cases. Smokers were more likely to have dry mouth in all ages and both sexes (p < 0.001). As male became older, the chance of having dry mouth increased more rapidly than among female smokers (p < 0.001). In addition, female smokers were more likely to have dry mouth than male smokers (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The likelihood of dry mouth among daily smokers depended on age and sex. Female smokers were more likely to have dry mouth, and its likelihood increased with age in daily smokers of both sexes, though more rapidly in males.
Associations of depression and anxiety with cardiovascular risk among people living with HIV/AIDS in Korea
Associations of depression and anxiety with cardiovascular risk among people living with HIV/AIDS in Korea
Kyong Sil Park;Seon Young Hwang;Bo Youl Choi;June Kim;Sang Il Kim;Woo-Joo Kim;Chun Kang
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health Volume 43 / 2021 / 1-7 (7 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
초록보기
OBJECTIVES: As HIV/AIDS is becoming a chronic disease, the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) among people living with HIV/AIDS is rising. Anxiety and depression, which are common among people living with HIV/AIDS, have been linked with CVD. This study investigated the risk of CVD in people living with HIV/AIDS and explored the effects of depression and anxiety on CVD risk. METHODS: Data were collected for 457 people enrolled in the Korea Cohort HIV/AIDS study after 2010. Framingham risk scores were calculated to quantify the 10-year risk of developing CVD. Depression and anxiety variables were re-coded as a single combined variable. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusting for age, body mass index, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), duration of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positivity after entry into the cohort, and depression/anxiety. RESULTS: Participants with both depression and anxiety were 2.28 times more likely than those with neither depression nor anxiety to have moderate/high-risk CVD risk. The 10-year risk of developing CVD was affected by LDL cholesterol, TG, age, and duration of HIV infection. LDL cholesterol and TG levels change according to the duration of HIV infection, and metabolic disorders affect the risk of CVD. Thus, a longer duration of HIV infection is associated with a higher risk of developing CVD. CONCLUSIONS: Screenings for depression and anxiety need to be provided regularly to assess the severity of those symptoms. To help decrease their risk of developing CVD, people living with HIV/AIDS should be offered behavioral modification interventions aimed at developing healthy lifestyle habits.
Dynamics of the COVID-19 epidemic in the post-vaccination period in Korea: a rapid assessment
Dynamics of the COVID-19 epidemic in the post-vaccination period in Korea: a rapid assessment
Kyung-Duk Min;Sangwoo Tak
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health Volume 43 / 2021 / 1-7 (7 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
초록보기
OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had a tremendous impact on public health and socioeconomic conditions globally. Although non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) such as social distancing effectively reduced the incidence of COVID-19, especially in Korea, demand for vaccination has increased to minimize the social costs of NPIs. This study estimated the potential benefits of COVID-19 vaccination in Korea. METHODS: A mathematical model with vaccinated–susceptible–latent–infectious–recovered compartments was used to simulate the COVID-19 epidemic. The compartments were stratified into age groups of 0-19 years, 20-59 years, and 60 years or older. Based on the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency national vaccination plan for the second quarter of 2021, announced on March 15, we developed vaccination scenarios (with 150,000 dose/d and 100% compliance as the main scenario). Comparing scenarios without vaccination or with higher/lower vaccination rates and compliance, we estimated the numbers of COVID-19 cases that will be prevented by vaccination. RESULTS: The results projected 203,135 cases within a year after April 2021 without vaccination, which would be reduced to 71,248 (64.9% decrease) by vaccination. Supposing a vaccination rate of 150,000 dose/d and 100% compliance, social distancing interventions for those aged 20 or more can be retracted after January 1, 2022. CONCLUSIONS: We expect COVID-19 vaccination to be effective in Korea. Health authorities should minimize delays in vaccination and vaccine avoidance to maximize the effectiveness of vaccination and end social distancing early.
Establishment of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey air pollution study dataset for the researchers on the health impact of ambient air pollution
Establishment of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey air pollution study dataset for the researchers on the health impact of ambient air pollution
Myung-Jae Hwang; Jisun Sung; Miryoung Yoon; Jong-Hun Kim; Hui-Young Yun; Dae-Ryun Choi; Youn-Seo Koo; Kyungwon Oh; Sungha Yun; Hae-Kwan Cheong
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health Volume 43 / 2021 / 1-7 (7 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
초록보기
To provide a nationwide representative dataset for the study on health impact of air pollution, we combined the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with the daily air quality and weather data by matching the date of examination and the residential address of the participants. The database of meteorological factors and air quality as sources of exposure data were estimated using the Community Multiscale Air Quality model. The linkage dataset was merged by three ways; administrative district, si-gun-gu (city, county, and district), and geocode (in latitude and longitude coordinate units) based on the participants’ residential address, respectively. During the study period, the exposure dataset of 85,018 individuals (38,306 men and 46,712 women) whose examination dates were recorded were obtained. According to the definition of exposure period, the dataset was combined with the data on short-term, mid-term, and long-term exposure to air pollutants and the meteorological indices. Calculation of the daily merged dataset’s average air pollution linked by si-gun-gu and geocode units showed similar results. This study generated a daily average of meteorological indices and air pollution exposure dataset for all regions including rural and remote areas in Korea for 11 years. It is expected to provide a platform for the researchers studying the health impact of air pollution and climate change on the representative population and area, which may facilitate the establishment of local health care plans by understanding the residents’ health status at the local as well as national level.
Renal hyperfiltration, fatty liver index, and the hazards of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in Finnish men
Renal hyperfiltration, fatty liver index, and the hazards of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in Finnish men
Mounir Ould Setti; Ari Voutilainen; Tomi-Pekka Tuomainen
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health Volume 43 / 2021 / 1-7 (7 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
초록보기
OBJECTIVES: Renal hyperfiltration (RHF) and fatty liver are separately associated with adverse health outcomes. In this study, we investigated the mortality hazard of coexisting RHF and fatty liver. METHODS: Middle-aged men from the Kuopio Ischaemic Disease Risk Factor Study (n=1,552) were followed up for a median of 29 years. Associations among RHF, fatty liver index (FLI) score, age, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and hypertension status were assessed using logistic regression. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality with respect to RHF and fatty liver. RESULTS: Of the men, 5% had RHF (n=73), whereas a majority had fatty liver (n=848). RHF was associated specifically with smoking, and fatty liver was associated specifically with overweight. The all-cause mortality hazard was highest (HR, 1.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27 to 3.01) among men with RHF and fatty liver (n=33). Among men with RHF but normal FLI (n=40), the HR of all-cause mortality was 1.67 (95% CI, 1.15 to 2.42). Among men with fatty liver but a normal estimated glomerular filtration rate (n=527), the HR of all-cause mortality was 1.35 (95% CI, 1.09 to 1.66). CVD mortality hazard was associated with RHF, but not fatty liver. We detected no interaction effect between RHF and fatty liver for all-cause (synergy index, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.21 to 2.67) or CVD (synergy index, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.34 to 2.60) mortality. CONCLUSIONS: RHF and fatty liver are independently associated with all-cause and CVD mortality.
Estimated incidence of juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis in Korea
Estimated incidence of juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis in Korea
Jin-Kyoung Oh; Hwa Young Choi; Minji Han1, Yuh-Seog Jung; Sang Joon Lee; Moran Ki
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health Volume 43 / 2021 / 1-7 (7 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
초록보기
OBJECTIVES: Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11 and is potentially preventable through vaccination. This study estimated the incidence of juvenile-onset RRP before the implementation of the national HPV vaccination program in Korea. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study using claims data provided by a mandatory insurance program to estimate the incidence of RRP and associated healthcare use. Patients with juvenile RRP were defined as those aged ≤12 years with ≥2 admissions or ≥2 outpatient visits during which they received the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision code for benign neoplasms of the larynx (D14.1). RESULTS: During 2002-2014, 123 children (74 boys and 49 girls) were diagnosed with RRP. The patients had a mean of 6.5 person-years of follow-up. The incidence was estimated at 0.30/100,000 person-years. The median age at diagnosis was 4.0 years (mean, 4.3). Thirty-six (29.3%) patients underwent surgery, including 23 patients (18.7%) who underwent 2 or more surgical procedures. Severe disease, measured by more frequent surgical procedures and shorter time intervals between consecutive operations, was associated with a younger age at diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated incidence of juvenile-onset RRP in Korea was similar to that reported in other countries. The RRP burden should continue to be monitored using National Health Insurance Service claims data.
Strongyloides stercoralis and other intestinal parasites in patients receiving immunosuppressive drugs in northern Iran: a closer look at risk factors
Strongyloides stercoralis and other intestinal parasites in patients receiving immunosuppressive drugs in northern Iran: a closer look at risk factors
Leila Mirzaei;Keyhan Ashrafi;Zahra Atrkar Roushan;Mohammad Reza Mahmoudi;Irandokht Shenavar Masooleh;Behnaz Rahmati;Farshid Saadat;Hamed Mirjalali;Meysam Sharifdini
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health Volume 43 / 2021 / 1-7 (7 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
초록보기
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis and other intestinal parasites in patients receiving immunosuppressive drugs in northern Iran and to investigate related risk factors. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 494 patients receiving immunosuppressive drugs, including cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy (n=188) and those treated with prolonged corticosteroid administration (n=306). All fresh fecal samples were examined using the direct wet-mount, formalin ethyl acetate concentration, and agar plate culture techniques. RESULTS: In total, 16.8% of patients were positive for at least 1 intestinal parasite; the helminthic and protozoan infection rates were 5.1% and 12.3%, respectively. The infection rate was significantly higher in corticosteroid-treated individuals (19.6%) than cancer patients (12.2%) (p<0.05). The prevalence rate of S. stercoralis among patients receiving chemotherapy and those treated with corticosteroids were 4.3% and 5.2%, respectively. The prevalence rate of S. stercoralis infection was significantly higher in older patients (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Strongyloidiasis is one of the most common parasites among patients receiving immunosuppressive drugs in northern Iran. Early diagnosis and proper treatment of these patients are necessary to minimize the complications of severe strongyloidiasis.
Inherently high uncertainty in predicting the time evolution of epidemics
Inherently high uncertainty in predicting the time evolution of epidemics
Seung-Nam Park; Hyong-Ha Kim; Kyoung Beom Lee
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health Volume 43 / 2021 / 1-7 (7 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
초록보기
quaranOBJECTIVES: Amid the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with its high infectivity, we have relied on mathematical models to predict the temporal evolution of the disease. This paper aims to show that, due to active behavioral changes of individuals and the inherent nature of infectious diseases, it is complicated and challenging to predict the temporal evolution of epidemics. METHODS: A modified susceptible-exposed-infectious-hospitalized-removed (SEIHR) compartment model with a discrete feedback-controlled transmission rate was proposed to incorporate individuals’ behavioral changes into the model. To figure out relative uncertainties in the infection peak time and the fraction of the infected population at the peak, a deterministic method and 2 stochastic methods were applied. RESULTS: A relatively small behavioral change of individuals with a feedback constant of 0.02 in the modified SEIHR model resulted in a peak time delay of up to 50% using the deterministic method. Incorporating stochastic methods into the modified model with a feedback constant of 0.04 suggested that the relative random uncertainty of the maximum fraction of infections and that of the peak time for a population of 1 million reached 29% and 9%, respectively. Even without feedback, the relative uncertainty of the peak time increased by up to 20% for a opulation of 100,000. CONCLUSIONS: It is shown that uncertainty originates from stochastic properties of infections. Without a proper selection of the evolution scenario, active behavioral changes of individuals could serve as an additional source of uncertainty.
Predictors of anticipated coping behavior at myocardial infarction symptom onset among a nationwide sample of Korean adults
Predictors of anticipated coping behavior at myocardial infarction symptom onset among a nationwide sample of Korean adults
Kyong Sil Park
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health Volume 43 / 2021 / 1-7 (7 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
초록보기
OBJECTIVES: This cross-sectional study based on the health belief model investigated predictors of anticipated coping behavior at myocardial infarction (MI) symptom onset using secondary data from the 2017 Korea Community Health Survey. METHODS: Modifying variables (socioeconomic, health knowledge, perceived threat) were selected as independent variables and anticipated coping behavior at MI symptom onset as the dependent variable. Calling 911 was classified as the correct anticipated coping behavior, while visiting a hospital or an oriental hospital, calling family, and others were classified as incorrect. RESULTS: Of 227,740 participants, 83.2% reported correct anticipated coping behaviors. The likelihood of calling 911 was low if participants experienced atypical symptoms (jaw, neck, back, arm, and shoulder pain), even if they were aware of those symptoms. However, 69.9% of participants who were aware of typical symptoms (chest pain) stated that they would call-911. Sex, age, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, and awareness of MI symptoms affected the correct anticipated coping behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Correct coping abilities among the general public are vitally important for early treatment of MI patients and reduction of hospitalization time. Members of the general public in their 20s and 30s, 60 years of age or older, with cardiovascular risk factors (male sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity), and who are not aware of MI symptoms should be educated about the typical and atypical symptoms of MI. Emergency medical services should be called without delay if needed, and public relations activities should be carried out to raise awareness that anyone can use emergency medical services.
The epidemiology of amoebiasis in Thi-Qar Province, Iraq (2015-2020): differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar using nested and real-time polymerase chain reaction
The epidemiology of amoebiasis in Thi-Qar Province, Iraq (2015-2020): differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar using nested and real-time polymerase chain reaction
Mohammed Hassan Flaih;Ruaa Majid Khazaal;Manar Karem Kadhim
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health Volume 43 / 2021 / 1-7 (7 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
초록보기
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the present status of amoebiasis in Thi-Qar Province in southern Iraq, and to determine the presence of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar with nested and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). METHODS: Epidemiological data were obtained from the public health department of the Thi-Qar Health Office (2015-2020). Eighty stool samples were also randomly collected from patients ≤12 year of age with diarrhea at 2 hospitals between the beginning of February 2020 and the end of October 2020. These samples were selected after microscopy to identify the 18S rRNA gene in Entamoeba DNA. RESULTS: Of the 341,554 cases of intestinal parasitic infections, 38,004 (11.1%) individuals were recorded as having amoebiasis, which accounted for the highest proportion of infections in 2015 (26.1%) and the lowest in 2020 (8.1%). Amoebiasis was distributed among all age groups, with the age group of 5-14 years accounting for the highest proportion (27.3%). In molecular testing, 42 (52.5%) out of 80 samples were positive for the 18S rRNA gene (888 bp). Using nested PCR, E. histolytica (439 bp) was detected in 25 (31.3%) samples and E. dispar (174 bp) in 14 (17.5%), while using real-time PCR, E. histolytica and E. dispar were detected in 28 (35.0%) and 15 (18.8%) samples, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiological data confirmed that amoebiasis is endemic in this province, and is not limited to certain months. Our study confirms the applicability of molecular identification to detect pathogenic and non-pathogenic Entamoeba to prescribe the appropriate drug.
Human papillomavirus: footprints in the population of western India
Human papillomavirus: footprints in the population of western India
Ashi Robert Thobias;Kinjal Ankit Patel;Supreet Dhananjay Bhatt;Kruti Ashvinkumar Mehta;Chetana Deepal Parekh;Pariseema Sharad Dave;Prabhudas Shankarbhai Patel
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health Volume 43 / 2021 / 1-7 (7 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
초록보기
OBJECTIVES: Cancer is a multi-factorial disease, with various intrinsic and environmental factors contributing to its occurrence. Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been associated with the occurrence of many cancers. India severely suffers from 3 HPV-associated cancers (cervical cancer, oral cancer, and oropharyngeal cancer). Hence, the present study aimed to evaluate the HPV burden in these 3 cancers among patients from the western region of India. METHODS: DNA was isolated from samples from 400 cervical cancer, 127 oral cancer, and 75 oropharyngeal cancer patients. Polymerase chain reaction was performed using degenerate primers for HPV infection. RESULTS: Overall, HPV infection was observed in 87% of cervical cancer cases, 12.5% of oral cancer cases, and 26.7% of oropharyngeal cancer cases when analyzed with a cumulative detection method using the MY 09/11, GP 5+/6+, and CP I/II primer sets. CONCLUSIONS: A significant prevalence of HPV infection was detected in all 3 cancers using the degenerate primer sets. This finding implies that testing for HPV infection using multiple primer sets is crucial for determining its actual prevalence in various malignancies.
Associations of physical activity at work and household income with obesity
Associations of physical activity at work and household income with obesity
Su Yeon Kye; Heeyoun Cho; Tran Thi Phuong Thao; Jin-Kyoung Oh; Min Kyung Lim
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health Volume 43 / 2021 / 1-8 (8 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
초록보기
OBJECTIVES: This study was performed to identify the effect of physical activity at work on obesity and to analyze the contribution of socioeconomic factors and health behaviors to this association, which has been relatively little studied. METHODS: From the Korean National Cancer Center Community Cohort, a total of 5,587 adults (2,125 men; 3,462 women) aged more than 30 years living in rural areas were enrolled. Information on socio-demographic factors, health behaviors, and body mass index was gathered using face-to-face interviews and measurements of height and weight. RESULTS: Inverse associations were identified between vigorous-intensity physical activity at work and obesity in both men and women, while no association was found between vigorous-intensity physical activity during leisure time and obesity. High household income was independently associated with a lower risk of obesity among those who had low levels of vigorous-intensity physical activity at work. Vigorous physical activity at work showed an inverse association with obesity in rural areas where heavy manual labor is common. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate the necessity to account for various types of physical activity to improve the assessment and prevention of obesity.
Cohort profile: the Ewha Birth and Growth Study
Cohort profile: the Ewha Birth and Growth Study
Hye Ah Lee; Bohyun Park; Jungwon Min; Eun Jeong Choi; Ui Jeong Kim; Hyun Jin Park; Eun Ae Park; Su Jin Cho; Hae Soon Kim; Hwayoung Lee; Young Ju Kim; Young Sun Hong; Eui-Jung Kim; Eun Hee Ha; Hyesook Park
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health Volume 43 / 2021 / 1-8 (8 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
초록보기
With the introduction of life-course epidemiology, researchers realized the importance of identifying risk factors in early life to prevent chronic diseases. This led to the establishment of the Ewha Birth and Growth Study in 2001; the study is a prospective birth cohort designed to provide evidence of early life risk factors for a child’s growth and health. Participants were recruited from those who visited Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital (a tertiary hospital in southwest Seoul, Korea) for prenatal care at 24-28 weeks of gestation. In total, 891 mothers enrolled in this study between 2001 and 2006 and their offspring (n=940) were followed-up. Regular check-up examinations of offspring were conducted at 3 years, 5 years, and 7 years of age and every year thereafter. To consider age-related health issues, extensive data were collected using questionnaires and measurements. In 2021, the study subjects will reach 19 years of age, and we are planning a check-up examination for early adulthood. About 20 years have passed since the cohort data were collected, and we have published results on childhood health outcomes associated with prenatal and birth characteristics, genetic and epigenetic characteristics related to childhood metabolism, the effects of exposure to endocrine disruptors, and dietary patterns in childhood. Recently, we started reporting on topics related to adolescent health. The findings will facilitate identification of early life risk factors for chronic diseases and the development of interventions for diseases later in life.
Epidemiological distribution of primary central nervous system tumors in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia: a local registry from neuroscience-affiliated centers
Epidemiological distribution of primary central nervous system tumors in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia: a local registry from neuroscience-affiliated centers
Maher Kurdi;Nadeem Shafique Butt;Saleh Baeesa;Badrah Alghamdi;Yazid Maghrabi;Anas Bardeesi;Rothaina Saeedi;Ahmed I. Lary
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health Volume 43 / 2021 / 1-8 (8 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
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OBJECTIVES: Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are a major and growing global healthcare challenge. Western Saudi Arabia has an inconsistent data registry; therefore, the epidemiology of CNS tumors is unclear across the country. This study is aimed to assemble the epidemiological matrix of CNS tumors in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed using clinical data obtained from 3 neuroscience centers in Western Saudi Arabia in the period 2014-2019. The sample size included 663 adult and pediatric cases from the local and expatriate populations diagnosed with CNS tumors. The distributions of age, sex, clinical presentation, tumor location, type of surgery, histological subtype, genetic characteristics, and recurrence rate were explored. RESULTS: The analysis included 500 adult cases and 163 pediatric cases up to 18 years of age with a male-to-female ratio of 1.16. The mean age at diagnosis was 38.0±22.6 years. The supratentorium was the most common location (n=515, 77.7%). Most patients presented with headache (n=298, 44.9%), followed by a focal neurological deficit (19.9%). The most common primary CNS tumor was glioblastoma (n=234, 35.3%), followed by meningioma (n=100, 15.1%). The recurrence rate after surgery was estimated to be 40.9% among all CNS tumors. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first tumor registry of Western Province of Saudi Arabia that describes the distribution of primary CNS tumors and highlights their epidemiological matrix. Several incidence trends in terms of histological type, age group, sex, location, and recurrence were determined, and some genetic characteristics were recognized.
Data resource profile: the allergic disease database of the Korean National Health Insurance Service
Data resource profile: the allergic disease database of the Korean National Health Insurance Service
Sunyong Yoo;Dong-Wook Kim;Young-Eun Kim;Jong Heon Park;Yeon-Yong Kim;Kyu-dong Cho;Mi-Ji Gwon;Jae-In Shin;Eun-Joo Lee
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health Volume 43 / 2021 / 1-8 (8 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
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Researchers have been interested in probing how the environmental factors associated with allergic diseases affect the use of medical services. Considering this demand, we have constructed a database, named the Allergic Disease Database, based on the National Health Insurance Database (NHID). The NHID contains information on demographic and medical service utilization for approximately 99% of the Korean population. This study targeted 3 major allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and asthma. For the target diseases, our database provides daily medical service information, including the number of daily visits from 2013 and 2017, categorized by patients’ characteristics such as address, sex, age, and duration of residence. We provide additional information, including yearly population, a number of patients, and averaged geocoding coordinates by eup, myeon, and dong district code (the smallest-scale administrative units in Korea). This information enables researchers to analyze how daily changes in the environmental factors of allergic diseases (e.g., particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and ozone) in certain regions would influence patients’ behavioral patterns of medical service utilization. Moreover, researchers can analyze long-term trends in allergic diseases and the health effects caused by environmental factors such as daily climate and pollution data. The advantages of this database are easy access to data, additional levels of geographic detail, time-efficient data-refining and processing, and a de-identification process that minimizes the exposure of identifiable personal information. All datasets included in the Allergic Disease Database can be downloaded by accessing the National Health Insurance Service data sharing webpage (https://nhiss.nhis.or.kr).
Self-rated health as a predictor of mortality according to cognitive impairment: findings from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (2006-2016)
Self-rated health as a predictor of mortality according to cognitive impairment: findings from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (2006-2016)
Goun Park;Wankyo Chung
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health Volume 43 / 2021 / 1-8 (8 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
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OBJECTIVES: Self-rated health is an instrumental variable to assess the overall health status of a population. However, it remains questionable whether it is still useful for cognitively impaired individuals. Therefore, this study aims to analyze whether self-rated health by the cognitively impaired predicts mortality reliably. METHODS: This study used 7,881 community-dwelling individuals, aged 45 and above, from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (2006-2016). It used the Cox proportional hazard models for analysis. Cognitive status was classified based on the Korean Mini Mental State Examination score and a stratified analysis was used to determine whether the predictability of self-rated health varies according to cognitive status. RESULTS: For cognitively intact individuals, the adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) of mortality were 2.00 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18 to 3.41, model 4) for those with ‘bad’ self-rated health and 2.40 (95% CI, 1.35 to 4.25, model 4) for those with ‘very bad’ self-rated heath, respectively, compared with those with ‘very good’ health. The results remain statistically significant even after adjusting for socio-demographic factors, health status, and health-related behaviors. For cognitively impaired individuals, the aHR of mortality was statistically significant for those with ‘very bad’ self-rated health, compared with those with ‘very good’ health, when socio-demographic factors were accounted for (aHR, 3.03; 95% CI, 1.11 to 8.28, model 2). CONCLUSIONS: Self-rated health by cognitively impaired individuals remains useful in predicting mortality. It appears to be a valid and reliable health indicator for the rising population with cognitive impairment, especially caused by aging population.
Effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide as auxiliary treatment for hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Brazil: preliminary results of a randomized double-blind clinical trial
Effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide as auxiliary treatment for hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Brazil: preliminary results of a randomized double-blind clinical trial
Marielle Bazzo Di Domênico;Henrique Cesca;Thales Henrique Jincziwski Ponciano;Renan Brandenburg dos Santos;Ulysses Lenz;Vinícius Picoli Antunes;Vinicius Webber Godinho;Kauê Collares;Pedro Henrique Corazza
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health Volume 43 / 2021 / 1-8 (8 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
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OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the form of mouthwash and nasal spray as an auxiliary treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Forty hospitalized patients who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 using a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction test were evaluated. They were randomly divided into an experimental group (n=20; gargling with 1.0% H2O2 and nasal wash with 0.5% H2O2) or a control group (n=20). The solutions were used for 7 days and the patients were monitored every 2 days, for a total of 8 days. At check-ups, patients were asked about their symptoms and possible adverse effects of the solutions. The presence and severity (mild, moderate, or severe) of symptoms were recorded. Data were compared using the Student test and the Fisher exact test (α=0.05). RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in the length of hospital stay (p=0.65). The most frequent symptom on day 0 was coughing (72.0% in the experimental group and 76.5% in the control group), which abated over time. There was no significant difference between the groups in the evaluated symptoms. Most (75.0%) of the patients in the experimental group presented a reduction in dyspnea between days 0 and 2. Few patients reported adverse effects from the use of the solutions. CONCLUSIONS: H2O2 as a mouthwash and nasal spray is safe to use. There is insufficient evidence to demonstrate that H2O2 is effective as an auxiliary treatment for hospitalized COVID-19 patients.
Comorbidity network analysis related to obesity in middle-aged and older adults: findings from Korean population-based survey data
Comorbidity network analysis related to obesity in middle-aged and older adults: findings from Korean population-based survey data
Hye Ah Lee; Hyesook Park
한국역학회 / Epidemiology and Health Volume 43 / 2021 / 1-8 (8 pages)
의약학>면역학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 면역학
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OBJECTIVES: We conducted a comorbidity network analysis using data from the seventh Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to systematically quantify obesity-related comorbidities. METHODS: The study included 11,712 subjects aged 45 to 80 (5,075 male and 6,637 female). A prevalent disease was defined as a specific disease for which a subject had been diagnosed by a doctor and was being treated. Comorbidity network analysis was performed for diseases with a prevalence of 1% or more, including overweight and obesity. We estimated the observed-to-expected ratio of all possible disease pairs with comorbidity strength and visualized the network of obesity-related comorbidities. RESULTS: In subjects over 45 years old, 37.3% of people had a body mass index over 25.0 kg/m2. The most common prevalent disease was hypertension (42.3%), followed by dyslipidemia (17.4%) and diabetes (17.0%). Overweight and obese subjects were 2.1 times (95% confidence interval, 1.9 to 2.3) more likely to have a comorbidity (i.e., 2 or more diseases) than normal-weight subjects. Metabolic diseases such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and osteoarthritis were directly associated with overweight and obesity. The probability of coexistence for each of those 4 diseases was 1.3 times higher than expected. In addition, hypertension and dyslipidemia frequently coexisted in overweight and obese female along with other diseases. In obese male, dyslipidemia and diabetes were the major diseases in the comorbidity network. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide evidence justifying the management of metabolic components in obese individuals. In addition, our results will help prioritize interventions for comorbidity reduction as a public health goal.