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홈 > 간행물 권호
  • 발행기관: 대한정신약물학회
  • 간행물:
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Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience

  • 발행기관 : 대한정신약물학회(KOREAN COLLEGE OF NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY)
  • 출처구분 : 학회
  • 간행물유형 : 학술저널
  • 발행주기 : 계간 (발행월:2,5,8,11)
  • Print ISSN : 1738-1088
  • 등재정보 : KCI 등재, SCOPUS, SCIE
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience
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A New Look on an Old Issue: Comprehensive Review of Neurotransmitter Studies in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Schizophrenia and Antipsychotic Effect on Monoamine’s Metabolism
A New Look on an Old Issue: Comprehensive Review of Neurotransmitter Studies in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Schizophrenia and Antipsychotic Effect on Monoamine’s Metabolism
Matthieu Gasnier;Pierre Ellul;Marion Plaze;Pierre Abdel Ahad
대한정신약물학회 / Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience Vol.19 No.3 / 2021 / 395-410 (16 pages)
의약학>정신과학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 정신과학
* 이 논문은 저작권자의 요청으로 무료로 제공됩니다.
초록보기
Neurotransmitters metabolism has a key role in the physiopathology of schizophrenia as demonstrated by studies meas-uring monoamine metabolites in patient’s cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) since the beginning of the antipsychotic use. This comprehensive review aims to understand the anomalies of CSF monoamines in schizophrenia and their correlation with clinical and paraclinical features. We also review the influence of antipsychotic treatment on CSF monoamines and discuss the connection with metabolic and inflammatory processes. Studies comparing CSF homovanillic acid (HVA) levels between patients and controls are miscellaneous, due to the heterogeneity of samples studies. However, low HVA is associated with more positive symptoms and a poorer outcome and negatively correlated with brain ventricle size. Based on humans and animals’ studies, antipsychotic treatments increase HVA during the first week of admin-istration and decrease progressively over the time with a fall-off after withdrawal. 5-hydroxyindolacetic acetic acid levels do not seem to be different in the patient’s CSF compared to controls. Considering metabolic co-factors of neurotrans-mitters synthesis, there is evidence supporting an increase of kynurenic acid in the CSF of patients with schizophrenia. Few studies explore folate metabolism in CSF. Literature also emphasizes the relationship between folate metabolism, inflammation and monoamine’s metabolism. Those results suggest that the CSF monoamines could be correlated with schizophrenia symptoms and treatment outcome. However, further studies, exploring the role of CSF monoamines as biomarkers of disease severity and response to treatment are needed. They should assess the antipsychotic prescription, inflammatory markers and folate metabolism as potential confounding factors.
Challenges in Prescribing Clozapine in the Era of COVID-19: A Review Focused on Immunological Implications
Challenges in Prescribing Clozapine in the Era of COVID-19: A Review Focused on Immunological Implications
Seong Hoon Jeong;Yong Sik Kim
대한정신약물학회 / Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience Vol.19 No.3 / 2021 / 411-422 (12 pages)
의약학>정신과학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 정신과학
* 이 논문은 저작권자의 요청으로 무료로 제공됩니다.
초록보기
The global COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted every aspect of the healthcare system. Apart from the issues surrounding COVID-19 itself, care for existing patients has met many challenges. One such challenge is caring for patients who are on clozapine treatment and have been confirmed positive for COVID-19. Schizophrenia has been considered to have a deep connection with the immune system, and clozapine can induce further changes in this system. COVID-19 can ravage the compromised immune system and aggravate tissue damage. The intricate relations between schizo-phrenia, clozapine, and COVID-19 make it difficult to predict the clinical course of COVID-19 in clozapine-treated patients. However, the rigid prohibition on using clozapine if COVID-19 is confirmed may harm patients. Patients who have to use clozapine are often refractory cases with no alternatives. Therefore, the decision to maintain or stop cloza-pine must be made after a comprehensive review of the patient’s unique situation. To do this, theoretical and practical issues surrounding the use of clozapine in COVID-19 should be reviewed and discussed. In this review, we gather useful information surrounding this issue and present an overview. Focusing on the immune system, various theoretical possibilities that could arise from schizophrenia, clozapine, and COVID-19 were carefully examined, and practical checklists for the care of these patients were explored. It is hoped that this review will convince many clinicians to pay attention to this momentous issue and facilitate more active sharing of clinical experiences.
Novel Biomarkers of Alzheimer’s Disease: Based Upon N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Hypoactivation and Oxidative Stress
Novel Biomarkers of Alzheimer’s Disease: Based Upon N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Hypoactivation and Oxidative Stress
Ting-I Chiang;Yi-Hsiang Yu;Chieh-Hsin Lin;Hsien-Yuan Lane
대한정신약물학회 / Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience Vol.19 No.3 / 2021 / 423-433 (11 pages)
의약학>정신과학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 정신과학
* 이 논문은 저작권자의 요청으로 무료로 제공됩니다.
초록보기
Early detection and prevention of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is important. The current treatment for early AD is acetylcho-line esterase inhibitors (AChEIs); however, the efficacy is poor. Besides, AChEI did not show efficacy in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Beta-amyloid (A) deposits have been regarded to be highly related to the pathogenesis of AD. However, many clinical trials aiming at the clearance of A deposits failed to improve the cognitive decline of AD, even at its early phase. There should be other important mechanisms unproven in the course of AD and MCI. Feasible biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment response of AD are lacking to date. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation plays an important role in learning and memory. On the other hand, oxidative stress has been regarded to contribute to aging with the assumption that free radicals damage cell constituents and connective tissues. Our recent study found that an NMDAR enhancer, sodium benzoate (the pivotal inhibitor of D-amino acid oxidase [DAAO]), improved the cognitive and global function of patients with early-phase AD. Further, we found that peripheral DAAO levels were higher in patients with MCI and AD than healthy controls. We also found that sodium benzoate was able to change the activity of antioxidant. These pieces of evidence suggest that the NMDAR function is associated with anti-oxidation, and have potential to be biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment response of AD.
Consideration of Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotics for Polypharmacy Regimen in the Treatment of Schizophrenia: Put It on the Table or Not?
Consideration of Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotics for Polypharmacy Regimen in the Treatment of Schizophrenia: Put It on the Table or Not?
Chi-Un Pae;Changsu Han;Won-Myong Bahk;Soo-Jung Lee;Ashwin A. Patkar;Prakash S. Masand
대한정신약물학회 / Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience Vol.19 No.3 / 2021 / 434-448 (15 pages)
의약학>정신과학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 정신과학
* 이 논문은 저작권자의 요청으로 무료로 제공됩니다.
초록보기
Antipsychotic monotherapy (APM) is considered best-acceptable treatment option regardless of antipsychotic class and formulation types for treating schizophrenia. However, antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) has been also widely utilized in routine clinical practice. Despite APP has some clinical benefits it has also numerous pitfalls in relation with increased total number and doses of APs leading to adverse events as well as decrease of treatment adherence and persistence resulting in poor clinical outcomes. Recent introduction of long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) to the market has offered a chance for better medication adherence/persistence and also provided a simplification of treatment regime leading to more stabilized treatment for schizophrenia patients. When we cannot stay away from APP in the treatment of schizophrenia, clinicians need to find more proper APP regimens and thereby utilization of APP in efficient way should be a practical strategy to benefit schizophrenia patient in a real world treatment setting. With this regard, LAIs can be one of available APP regimen for treatment of schizophrenia in routine practice since their clinical utility and pharmacokinetic stability over oral APs have been well-elaborated today. However, when we have to commence LAIs as a part of APP with oral APs or other LAIs, every effort should be made before doing so whether or not validated and available treatment options or other clinical factors were not done or evaluated yet. Any treatment guidelines do not support APP regardless of the formulation of APP regimen or address two or more LAIs for treatment of schizophrenia till today.
White Matter Alterations Associated with Pro-inflammatory Cytokines in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder
White Matter Alterations Associated with Pro-inflammatory Cytokines in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder
Jaehwa Lim;Hoyoung Sohn;Min-Soo Kwon;Borah Kim
대한정신약물학회 / Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience Vol.19 No.3 / 2021 / 449-458 (10 pages)
의약학>정신과학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 정신과학
* 이 논문은 저작권자의 요청으로 무료로 제공됩니다.
초록보기
Objective: Regarding the neuroinflammatory theory of major depressive disorder (MDD), little is known about the effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines on white matter (WM) changes in MDD. We aimed to investigate the relationship be-tween pro-inflammatory cytokines and WM alterations in patients with MDD. Methods: Twenty-two patients with MDD and 22 healthy controls (HC) were evaluated for brain imaging and pro-in-flammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Tract-based spatial statistics and FreeSurfer were used for brain image analysis. Results: The levels of TNF- and IL-8 were significantly higher in the MDD group than in HC. Compared to HC, lower fractional anisotropy (FA), and higher median diffusivity (MD) and radial diffusivity (RD) values were found in the MDD group for several WM regions. Voxel-wise correlation analysis showed that the level of TNF-α was negatively correlated with FA, and positively correlated with MD and RD in the left body and genu of the corpus callosum, left anterior corona radiata, and left superior corona radiata. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that TNF-α may play an important role in the WM alterations in depression, possibly through demyelination.
Real-world Evaluation of Tolerability, Safety and Efficacy of Rivastigmine Oral Solution in Patients with Mild to Moderate Alzheimer’s Disease Dementia
Real-world Evaluation of Tolerability, Safety and Efficacy of Rivastigmine Oral Solution in Patients with Mild to Moderate Alzheimer’s Disease Dementia
Sun-Wung Hsieh;Jui-Cheng Chen;Nai-Ching Chen;Kai-Ming Jhang;Wenfu Wang;Yuan-Han Yang
대한정신약물학회 / Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience Vol.19 No.3 / 2021 / 459-469 (11 pages)
의약학>정신과학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 정신과학
* 이 논문은 저작권자의 요청으로 무료로 제공됩니다.
초록보기
Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate the safety, tolerability and efficacy of titrating dose of rivastigmine oral solution in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in Taiwan. Methods: We recruited 108 mild to moderate AD patients with RivastⓇ (rivastigmine oral solution 2 mg/ml) treatment for 52 weeks. We recorded the demographic characteristics, initial cognition by mini-mental state examination (MMSE), initial global status by clinical dementia rating (CDR) with CDR-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB), initial dose, and titrating dose at each visit. We investigated the adherence, proportion of possible side effects, optimal dose, and time to optimal dose. We demonstrated the proportion of cognitive decline and its possible risk factors. Results: During the course, 9 patients discontinued the rivastigmine oral solution due to poor compliance or preference. Twelve out of 99 patients (12.1%) reported possible side effects. Among 87 patients, the mean age was 77.2 ± 9.0 years ago with female predominant (65.2%). The optimal dose was 3.6 ± 1.4 ml in average and 4 ml (n = 31, 35.6%) in mode. The duration to optimal dose was 12.5 ± 10.2 weeks and 24 weeks (n = 35, 40.2%) in mode. It presented 25% with cognitive decline in MMSE, 27% with global function decline in CDR and 63% with global function decline in CDR-SB. Conclusion: We demonstrated the clinical experience of rivastigmine oral solution in mild to moderate AD patients. It suggested rivastigmine oral solution 4ml is the optimal dose with 24 weeks to the optimal dose for at least one third of patients.
Efficacy of Ulinastatin and Sulforaphane Alone or in Combination in Rat Model of Streptozotocin Diabetes Induced Vascular Dementia
Efficacy of Ulinastatin and Sulforaphane Alone or in Combination in Rat Model of Streptozotocin Diabetes Induced Vascular Dementia
Poonam Sharma;Prachi Kaushik;Swati Jain;Brij Mohan Sharma;Rajendra Awasthi;Giriraj Thirupathirao Kulkarni;Bhupesh Sharma
대한정신약물학회 / Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience Vol.19 No.3 / 2021 / 470-489 (20 pages)
의약학>정신과학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 정신과학
* 이 논문은 저작권자의 요청으로 무료로 제공됩니다.
초록보기
Objective: Vascular Dementia (VaD), is associated with metabolic conditions. Diabetes is a major risk factor for the development of VaD. This study investigates the efficacy of ulinastatin (UTI) and sulforaphane (SUL) in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetes induced vascular endothelium dysfunction and related dementia. Methods: Single dose STZ (50 mg/kg i.p.) was administered to Albino Wistar rats (male, 200−250 g). Morris water maze and attentional set shifting tests were used to assess the spatial learning, memory, reversal learning, and executive functioning in animals. Body weight, serum glucose, serum nitrite/nitrate, vascular endothelial function, aortic super-oxide anion, brains’ oxidative markers (thiobarbituric acid reactive species-TBARS, reduced glutathione-GSH, superoxide dismutase-SOD, and catalase-CAT), inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and myeloperoxidase-MPO), acetylcholi-nesterase activity-AChE, blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability and histopathological changes were also assessed. UTI (10,000 U/kg) and SUL (25 mg/kg) were used alone as well as in combination, as the treatment drugs. Donepezil (0.5 mg/kg) was used as a positive control. Results: STZ-administered rats showed reduction in body weight, learning, memory, reversal learning, executive func-tioning, impairment in endothelial function, BBB permeability, increase in serum glucose, brains’ oxidative stress, in-flammation, AChE-activity, BBB permeability and histopathological changes. Administration of UTI and SUL alone as well as in combination, significantly and dose dependently attenuated the STZ-diabetes-induced impairments in the behavioral, endothelial, and biochemical parameters. Conclusion: STZ administration caused diabetes and VaD which was attenuated by the administration of UTI and SUL. Therefore, these agents may be studied further for the assessment of their full potential in diabetes induced VaD.
Predictors of Remission in Acute and Continuation Treatment of Depressive Disorders
Predictors of Remission in Acute and Continuation Treatment of Depressive Disorders
Ha-Yeon Kim;Hee-Joon Lee;Min Jhon;Ju-Wan Kim;Hee-Ju Kang;Ju-Yeon Lee;Sung-Wan Kim;Il-Seon Shin;Jae-Min Kim
대한정신약물학회 / Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience Vol.19 No.3 / 2021 / 490-497 (8 pages)
의약학>정신과학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 정신과학
* 이 논문은 저작권자의 요청으로 무료로 제공됩니다.
초록보기
Objective: To identify factors predicting remission of depression during acute (12 weeks) and continuation treatment (12 months) using a 1-year, naturalistic prospective study design. Methods: Patients with depressive disorders were recruited from Chonnam National University Hospital in South Korea from March 2012 to April 2017. At baseline, 1,262 patients received outpatient therapy, and sociodemographic and clinical data were obtained. Clinical visits took place every 3 weeks during the acute treatment phase (at 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks; n = 1,246), and every 3 months during the continuation treatment phase (at 6, 9, and 12 months; n = 1,015). Remission was defined as a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score ≤ 7. Results: The remission rate was 43.3% at 12 weeks and 70.4% at 12 months. In multivariate analyses, remission during the acute treatment phase was more likely in patients with a shorter-duration present episode, higher functioning, and good social support. Remission during the continuation treatment phase was more likely in patients with fewer previous depressive episodes and/or a lower baseline stress score. Conclusion: Factors predicting depressive disorder remission may differ between the acute and continuation treatment phases.
The Relationship between Psychopathology, Self-esteem, Body Perception and Serum Sex Steroids in Pubertal Gynecomastia
The Relationship between Psychopathology, Self-esteem, Body Perception and Serum Sex Steroids in Pubertal Gynecomastia
Semiha Comertoglu Arslan;Ibrahim Selcuk Esin;Atilla Cayır;Zerrin Orbak;Onur Burak Dursun
대한정신약물학회 / Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience Vol.19 No.3 / 2021 / 498-506 (9 pages)
의약학>정신과학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 정신과학
* 이 논문은 저작권자의 요청으로 무료로 제공됩니다.
초록보기
Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the psychopathology behind gynecomastia and potential associated problems regarding self-esteem and body perception, and the relationships of these variables with sex steroid levels in adolescents with pubertal gynecomastia. Methods: The study included 50 normal weight male adolescents aged between 11 and 18 years with gynecomastia but without any chronic organic pathology, and 50 healthy pubertal male adolescents matched for age. The adolescents underwent psychopathology assessment by Development and Well-Being Assessment interviews; self-esteem was as-sessed using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; body perception was evaluated using the Body Image Perception Scale, and the relationship between these variables and sex steroid levels were explored. Results: The results of the study revealed that the gynecomastia group had significantly greater internalization disorder (χ2 = 12.96, p < 0.001), and impairments in self-esteem (z = −1.975, p = 0.024) and body perception (z = −2.286, p = 0.022), and these variables were correlated with the gynecomastia stage. In the study group, cortisol levels were significantly higher (z = −2.330, p = 0.02) in adolescents with internalization disorder compared to those without, and cortisol levels increased in parallel with increased gynecomastia duration (r = 0.386, p = 0.006). Conclusion: In our study, we found that gynecomastia, depending on its stage, may lead to internalization disorder and impair self-esteem and body perception. It was found that there was no direct relationship between these parameters and sex steroids in pubertal gynecomastia, except for high cortisol levels in adolescents with internalization disorder.
Pars Triangularis Volume Asymmetry and Schneiderian First Rank Symptoms in Antipsychotic-naïve Schizophrenia
Pars Triangularis Volume Asymmetry and Schneiderian First Rank Symptoms in Antipsychotic-naïve Schizophrenia
Venkataram Shivakumar;Vanteemar Sathyanarayana Sreeraj;Sunil Vasu Kalmady;Bangalore Nanjundaiah Gangadhar;Ganesan Venkatasubramanian
대한정신약물학회 / Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience Vol.19 No.3 / 2021 / 507-513 (7 pages)
의약학>정신과학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 정신과학
* 이 논문은 저작권자의 요청으로 무료로 제공됩니다.
초록보기
Objective: Schizophrenia is a disorder of language and self, with first-rank symptoms (FRS) as one of the predominant features in a subset of patients. Abnormal language lateralization is hypothesized to underlie the neurobiology of FRS in schizophrenia. The role of Broca’s area with its right-hemispheric counterpart, consisting of pars triangularis (PTr) and pars opercularis (POp) of the inferior frontal gyrus in FRS is undetermined. We compared the volumes and asymme-tries of PTr & POp in anti-psychotic-naive schizophrenia patients with FRS (FRS[+]) with those without FRS (FRS[−]) and healthy-controls (HC) using three dimensional, interactive, semi-automated volumetric morphometry. Methods: Antipsychotic naïve FRS(+) (n = 27), FRS(−) (n = 24) and HC (n = 51) were carefully assessed with structured and semi-structured clinical tools. T1-weighted images were acquired in a 3T scanner. Volumes of regions of interest were measured independently for both sides using slicer-3D software, and asymmetry indices were calculated. Results: FRS(+) but not FRS(−) had a significant volume deficit in right PTr after controlling for the potential confound-ing effects of age, sex, and intracranial volume (p = 0.029). There was a significant leftward asymmetry of PTr in patients with FRS (i.e., leftward asymmetry in patients) (p = 0.026). No significant volume/asymmetry abnormalities were ob-served in POp. Conclusion: Study findings suggest reduced right PTr volume with leftward asymmetry to be associated with FRS in schizophrenia. This is consistent with the loss of Yakovlevian torque in schizophrenia. Role of PTr in the neurobiology of schizophrenia as a disorder of self, speech, and social cognition needs further systematic evaluation in future research.
5-HT1A Partial Agonist Tandospirone for Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Oldest-old Patients with Dementia at a Special Elderly Nursing Home
5-HT1A Partial Agonist Tandospirone for Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Oldest-old Patients with Dementia at a Special Elderly Nursing Home
Shinichiro Ochi;Takaaki Mori;Jun-ichi Iga;Shu-ichi Ueno
대한정신약물학회 / Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience Vol.19 No.3 / 2021 / 514-520 (7 pages)
의약학>정신과학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 정신과학
* 이 논문은 저작권자의 요청으로 무료로 제공됩니다.
초록보기
Objective: To investigate the efficacy of tandospirone, an azapirone anxiolytic similar to buspirone that is used in Japan, for behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), especially in oldest-old patients. Methods: This was an open-label observational study involving residents with BPSD in a special elderly nursing home between August 2013 and August 2018. The severity of dementia was assessed using the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale; as the main outcomes, the severity of BPSD was assessed using the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity scale (CGI-S) and Neuropsychiatric Inventory-12 (NPI-12) at baseline and 4 weeks after the maintenance dose of tando-spirone was reached. The administration of tandospirone started at 30 mg, divided into three doses per day. Two weeks later, if the efficacy was sufficient based on the clinical nursing record, that dose was continued; if the efficacy was insufficient, the daily dose was increased from 40 mg/day to a maximum dose of 60 mg/day. Results: Thirty-three participants (25 females [76%], mean age 87.1 ± 5.4 years) completed the study. Twenty-three participants (70%) were oldest-old (18 females [78%], mean age 89.9 ± 3.4 years). The mean CDR score was 2.9 ± 0.3 in all participants. Tandospirone treatment showed few or no obvious adverse effects and significantly improved CGI-S scores, as well as total scores and many subscale scores on the NPI-12, in both the sample at large and the oldest-old participants. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the efficacy and safety of tandospirone for BPSD in oldest-old participants.
Relationship between the Spectral Power Density of Sleep Electroencephalography and Psychiatric Symptoms in Patients with Breathing-related Sleep Disorder
Relationship between the Spectral Power Density of Sleep Electroencephalography and Psychiatric Symptoms in Patients with Breathing-related Sleep Disorder
Jae Myeong Kang;Seo-Eun Cho;Gun Bae Lee;Seong-Jin Cho;Kee Hyung Park;Seon Tae Kim;Seung-Gul Kang
대한정신약물학회 / Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience Vol.19 No.3 / 2021 / 521-529 (9 pages)
의약학>정신과학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 정신과학
* 이 논문은 저작권자의 요청으로 무료로 제공됩니다.
초록보기
Objective: Patients with breathing-related sleep disorder (BRSD) often complain of psychiatric symptoms such as depres-sion in addition to snoring, excessive sleepiness, and disturbed sleep. However, the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and severity of sleep apnea in BRSD is controversial. We conducted this study to investigate the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and sleep electroencephalography (EEG) findings in BRSD patients using spectral analysis. Methods: All participants underwent polysomnography and evaluation using Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) scale. We analyzed the absolute spectral power density values of standard EEG frequency bands in the participants (n = 169) with BRSD during the non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep period. We performed correlation analysis between the domain scores of SCL-90-R scale and the absolute values of the EEG frequency bands. Results: Significant positive correlation was observed between the absolute spectral power density values in the slow oscillation band and the degree of paranoid ideation (r = 0.226, p = 0.028) and depression (r = 0.216, p = 0.044) in SCL-90-R. The multiple linear regression model showed that higher paranoid ideation domain score (B = 0.007, p = 0.020), younger age (B = −0.011, p < 0.001), and female sex (B = 0.213, p = 0.004) were associated with higher slow oscillation power during NREM sleep. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggested a relationship between sleep EEG and psychiatric symptoms in patients with BRSD. This relationship needs to be validated with further studies.
Diagnostic Performance of Erythropoietin and Erythropoietin Receptors Levels in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Diagnostic Performance of Erythropoietin and Erythropoietin Receptors Levels in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Meltem Gungor;Ergul Belge Kurutas;Erkan Oner;Velid Unsal;Hatice Altun;Ali Erdinc Yalin;Serap Yalin;Ozlem Bozkus;Nilfer Sahin
대한정신약물학회 / Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience Vol.19 No.3 / 2021 / 530-536 (7 pages)
의약학>정신과학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 정신과학
* 이 논문은 저작권자의 요청으로 무료로 제공됩니다.
초록보기
Objective: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous, highly heritable, a common childhood neurobehavioural disorder resulting from complex gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. The erythropoietin (Epo)/erythropoietin receptors (EpoR) system turned out to have additional important functions in nonhematopoietic tissue. In this study, we aimed to investigate the levels of Epo and and EpoR, and also their diagnostic values in children with ADHD. Methods: A total of 70 children were included in the study, 35 drug-naive patients with ADHD (age: 6−12 years; male/female: 20/15) and 35 healthy controls (age: 6−12 years; male/female: 22/13). Serum Epo and EpoR levels was determined using a commercial sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Results: The results indicated that the levels of Epo decreased in patients with ADHD compared to control (p < 0.05). On the other hand, EpoR levels increased in these patients (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the ratio of Epo/EpoR was sig-nificantly lower in ADHD patients than controls (p < 0.05). Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis showed high diagnostic performance for Epo and EpoR, areas under curve were 0.980 and 1.000, respectively. Conclusion: This is the first report to investigate the association between serum Epo and EpoR levels in ADHD patients. Our results indicated that Epo may play a role in the etiology of ADHD, and Epo therapy may be beneficial in these disorders if given in addition to the routine treatment of children with ADHD. Furthermore, our results reveal possible diagnostic value of Epo and EpoR.
Changes in Brain Electrical Activity According to Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms in Survivors of the Sewol Ferry Disaster: A 1-year Longitudinal Study
Changes in Brain Electrical Activity According to Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms in Survivors of the Sewol Ferry Disaster: A 1-year Longitudinal Study
Sehee Jin;Cheolmin Shin;Changsu Han;Yong-Ku Kim;Jongha Lee;Sang Won Jeon;Seung-Hoon Lee;Young-Hoon Ko
대한정신약물학회 / Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience Vol.19 No.3 / 2021 / 537-544 (8 pages)
의약학>정신과학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 정신과학
* 이 논문은 저작권자의 요청으로 무료로 제공됩니다.
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Objective: The pathology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with changes in brain structure and function, especially in the amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and insula. Survivors of tragic accidents often experience psychological stress and develop post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), regardless of the diagnosis of PTSD. This study aimed to evaluate electroencephalographic changes according to PTSS in victims of a single trau-matic event. Methods: This study enrolled 60 survivors of the Sewol ferry disaster that occurred in 2014 from Danwon High School and collected electroencephalographic data through 19 channels twice for each person in 2014 and 2015 (mean 451.88 [standard deviation 25.77] days of follow-up). PTSS was assessed using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and the participants were divided into two groups according to the differences in PCL-C scores between 2014 and 2015. Electroencephalographic data were converted to three-dimensional data to perform low-resolution electrical tomo-graphic analysis. Results: Significant electroencephalographic changes over time were observed. The group of participants with worsened PCL-C score showed an increased change of delta slow waves in Brodmann areas 13 and 44, with the largest difference in the insula region, compared to those with improved PCL-C scores. Conclusion: Our findings suggests that the electrophysiological changes in the insula are associated with PTSS changes.
Patient Factors Influencing Outpatient Retention in Patients with Affective and Anxiety Disorders: A Retrospective Study
Patient Factors Influencing Outpatient Retention in Patients with Affective and Anxiety Disorders: A Retrospective Study
Seyeon Chang;Young Sup Woo;Sheng-Min Wang;Hyun Kook Lim;Won-Myong Bahk
대한정신약물학회 / Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience Vol.19 No.3 / 2021 / 545-553 (9 pages)
의약학>정신과학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 정신과학
* 이 논문은 저작권자의 요청으로 무료로 제공됩니다.
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Objective: The aim of the present study is to identify the factors that affect retention in outpatients with psychiatric disorders as indicators of treatment adherence, including Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) scores. Methods: The medical records of 146 patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, or anxiety disorder for at least 10 years and discharged were retrospectively reviewed in the present study. The subjects were categorized based on the duration of outpatient treatment as < 6 months (L6) or ≥ 6 months (M6) groups and re-classified as < 36 months (L36) and ≥ 36 months (M36) groups. The demographic, clinical, and personality character-istics of the groups were compared. Results: Patients in M6 and M36 groups were more likely to have a higher educational level compared with those in the L6 and L36 groups, respectively. Patients in the M6 group showed significantly lower hypomania (Ma) scores on the MMPI test than did patients in the L6 group. Conclusion: The association between high Ma score on the MMPI test and early discontinuation of treatment suggests that impulsivity, hostility, and disinhibition confer higher risk of nonadherence.
Autism-like Behaviors in Male Juvenile Offspring after Maternal Glyphosate Exposure
Autism-like Behaviors in Male Juvenile Offspring after Maternal Glyphosate Exposure
Yaoyu Pu;Li Ma;Jiajing Shan;Xiayun Wan;Bruce D. Hammock;Kenji Hashimoto
대한정신약물학회 / Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience Vol.19 No.3 / 2021 / 554-558 (5 pages)
의약학>정신과학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 정신과학
* 이 논문은 저작권자의 요청으로 무료로 제공됩니다.
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Objective: Exposure to the herbicide glyphosate during pregnancy and lactation may increase the risk for autism spec-trum disorder (ASD) in offspring. Recently, we reported that maternal exposure of formulated glyphosate caused ASD-like behaviors in juvenile offspring. Here, we investigated whether maternal exposure of pure glyphosate could cause ASD-like behaviors in juvenile offspring. Methods: Water or 0.098% glyphosate was administered as drinking water from E5 to P21 (weaning). Behavioral tests such as grooming test and three-chamber social interaction test in male offspring were performed from P28 to P35. Results: Male offspring showed ASD-like behavioral abnormalities (i.e., increasing grooming behavior and social inter-action deficit) after maternal exposure of glyphosate. Conclusion: The findings suggest that the exposure of glyphosate during pregnancy and lactation may cause ASD-like behavioral abnormalities in male juvenile offspring. It is likely that glyphosate itself, but not the other ingredients, may contribute to ASD-like behavioral abnormalities in juvenile offspring.
Significant Shortening of Leukocyte Telomere Length in Korean Patients with Bipolar Disorder 1
Significant Shortening of Leukocyte Telomere Length in Korean Patients with Bipolar Disorder 1
Eun-Jeong Joo;Yong Min Ahn;Mira Park;Soon Ae Kim
대한정신약물학회 / Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience Vol.19 No.3 / 2021 / 559-563 (5 pages)
의약학>정신과학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 정신과학
* 이 논문은 저작권자의 요청으로 무료로 제공됩니다.
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Objective: Telomere shortening has been seen in major psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder. However, only a few small studies have examined this in bipolar disorder (BD). We compared the telomere length in patients with BD1 or BD2 with that in matched healthy controls. Methods: We included 215 patients with BD (128 BD1, 87 BD2) and 204 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Relative telomere length was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The patients and controls were compared separately for age groups, sex, and BD subgroups (BD1 and BD2). Results: We found significant telomere shortening in patients with BD1 (p < 0.001), but not in patients with BD2. In male patients with BD1, the 30−39 year age group had significant shortening of telomere length than controls (p = 0.01). Female patients with BD1 in the 19−29-year age group had significantly shortened telomeres compared to the controls (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Our results suggest a significant reduction in telomere length in BD1. Telomere shortening would be a potential biomarker for BD.
Central Pontine Myelinolysis in a Normonatremic Patient with Depression
Central Pontine Myelinolysis in a Normonatremic Patient with Depression
Yu Chia Liu;Yen Kuang Yang;Po See Chen;Wei Hung Chang
대한정신약물학회 / Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience Vol.19 No.3 / 2021 / 564-567 (4 pages)
의약학>정신과학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 정신과학
* 이 논문은 저작권자의 요청으로 무료로 제공됩니다.
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A 76-year-old male presented with a recurrent depressive episode, an unsteady gait and cognitive impairment. Extensive blood tests, including hemogram, biochemical tests, folic acid, vitamin B12, and thyroid hormone, showed normal results. With the exception of the unsteady gait, neurological examination was negative. Brian magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed the typical feature of central pontine myelinolysis (CPM); however, there was no history of alco-holism, liver transplantation, malnutrition or rapid correction of hyponatremia. The patient had taken venlafaxine to treat major depressive disorder for more than 20 years. After discontinuation of venlafaxine, the unsteady gait gradually resolved, and subsequent MRI revealed reduction of the lesions over 6 months. We discuss herein the possible correla-tion between chronic use of venlafaxine and CPM.
Lurasidone in Therapy of Treatment-resistant Ultra-rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder: Case Report
Lurasidone in Therapy of Treatment-resistant Ultra-rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder: Case Report
Marcin Siwek;Aleksandra Gorostowicz
대한정신약물학회 / Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience Vol.19 No.3 / 2021 / 568-571 (4 pages)
의약학>정신과학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 정신과학
* 이 논문은 저작권자의 요청으로 무료로 제공됩니다.
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Lurasidone is an atypical antipsychotic approved for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar depression. It seems to have a favorable metabolic profile and low risk of causing adverse interactions. Here we present a case of a 25-year old female patient with treatment-resistant ultra-rapid cycling bipolar disorder, obesity, hypothyroidism, and epilepsy. Because of predominant depressive symptoms, occasional occurrence of brief psychotic symptoms and patient’s somatic comorbidities, treatment with lurasidone was initiated. Clinical improvement was observed 3 weeks and cessation of ultra-rapid cycling course of the disease 8 weeks after the beginning of lurasidone treatment. The patient’s level of functioning improved and body mass significantly decreased, with good tolerance of the pharmacotherapy. Lurasidone seems to be a promising treatment option in patients with treatment-resistant rapid cycling bipolar disorder.
Electroconvulsive Therapy for Parkinson’s Disease with Depression and Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome: A Case Report
Electroconvulsive Therapy for Parkinson’s Disease with Depression and Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome: A Case Report
Yuhei Mori;Itaru Miura;Michinari Nozaki;Yusuke Osakabe;Ryuta Izumi;Takahiro Akama;So Kimura;Hirooki Yabe
대한정신약물학회 / Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience Vol.19 No.3 / 2021 / 572-575 (4 pages)
의약학>정신과학 / KDC : 기술과학 > 의학 / KCI : 의약학 > 정신과학
* 이 논문은 저작권자의 요청으로 무료로 제공됩니다.
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Parkinson’s disease is often complicated by psychiatric symptoms. Psychiatrists are caught in a dilemma between such symptoms and physical treatment since Parkinson’s disease sometimes shows treatment resistance based on pharmaco-logical treatment-induced dopamine dysfunction. Here, we report on a 64-year-old woman with a 15-year history of Parkinson’s disease with stage IV severity based on the Hoehn and Yahr scale. She was admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder with psychotic features. Unfortunately, her treatment course for depression was complicated by neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Because we were concerned about the persistence of her depres-sive symptoms, the risk of psychotropic drugs causing adverse effects, and progressive disuse syndrome, we administered modified electroconvulsive therapy. Her symptoms of neuroleptic malignant syndrome and depression sufficiently im-proved after five sessions of modified electroconvulsive therapy. Additionally, the primary motor symptoms of her Parkinson’s disease also markedly improved. The improvement of neuroleptic malignant syndrome and her motor symp-toms based on dopamine dysfunction can be explained by electroconvulsive therapy’s effectiveness in activating dop-amine neurotransmission. Besides, the marked improvement of her depressive episode with psychotic features was pre-sumed to involve dopamine receptor activation and regulation. Because advanced Parkinson’s disease can sometimes be refractory to treatment based on pharmacological treatment-induced dopamine dysfunction, psychiatrists often have difficulty treating psychiatric symptoms; electroconvulsive therapy may stabilize the dopaminergic system in such cases, presenting a possible non-pharmacologic treatment option for Parkinson’s disease.