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  • 발행기관: 경희대학교 언어정보연구소
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언어연구(Linguistic Research)

  • 발행기관 : 경희대학교 언어정보연구소(Institute for the Study of Language and Information)
  • 출처구분 : 대학부설 연구소
  • 간행물유형 : 학술저널
  • 발행주기 : 계간 (발행월:3,6,9,12)
  • ISSN : 1229-1374
언어연구
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An English VPE puzzle and a derivational approach to ellipsis
An English VPE puzzle and a derivational approach to ellipsis
Dongwoo Park
경희대학교 언어정보연구소 / 언어연구 제35권 제1호 / 2018 / 1-27 (27 pages)
인문학>언어학 / KDC : 언어 > 언어 / KCI : 인문학 > 언어학
초록보기
Even though a lot of researchers have tried to illuminate the exact nature of English VP ellipsis (henceforth VPE), there is no consensus on how sentences with VPE are generated. It seems that the most widely accepted approaches involve the PF deletion approach (Merchant 2001, 2008, 2013; Lasnik 2001, inter alia) and the LF copying approach (Chung et al. 1995; Saito 2007, inter alia). However, in this paper, I point out that these two analyses cannot account for the VPE puzzle presented by Tancredi (1992), which shows that the ellipsis site of VPE cannot contain an in-situ wh-phrase. That is, a wh-element staying in VP cannot be elided alongside VPE. In order to explain this puzzle, I adopt the proposal by Park (2017a, 2017b) that ellipsis is a narrow syntactic operation that occurs during the derivation, rather than a post-syntactic operation occurring at PF, and that what is elided as a result of ellipsis is phonological feature matrices of lexical items inside the ellipsis site. On the basis of this derivational approach to ellipsis, I propose a prosodic requirement that all questions have to obey. This requirement is based on Richards’ (2016) Contiguity, which states that syntax can make reference to particular types of phonological information, and that syntax generates a prosodic representation during the derivation (i.e. as the derivation proceeds) alongside the syntactic representation. I argue that this prosodic constraint can also explain puzzling properties of Dutch Modal Complement Ellipsis, and British English do construction, where the complement of do located in v is elided.
An acquisition-based evaluation metric for competing syntactic theories
An acquisition-based evaluation metric for competing syntactic theories
Isaac Gould
경희대학교 언어정보연구소 / 언어연구 제35권 제1호 / 2018 / 29-74 (46 pages)
인문학>언어학 / KDC : 언어 > 언어 / KCI : 인문학 > 언어학
초록보기
This paper addresses the puzzle of choosing among competing syntactic theories, which are contrasting theories that can nevertheless all properly account for the utterances of some language. To do so, I develop an evaluation metric that is based on language learnability and acquisition. In particular, such an acquisition-based metric considers speed of acquiring a target grammar, as well as relative accuracy of acquisition. In applying such a metric, I propose using the kinds of novel data that can be generated via computational modeling for syntactic learning. I then demonstrate how this evaluation metric can be used effectively by reporting on learning simulations for a case study, which focuses on two competing theories that arise in the literature for verb raising in Swedish.
Being a ‘purist’ in trilingual Hong Kong: Code-switching among Cantonese, English and Putonghua
Being a ‘purist’ in trilingual Hong Kong: Code-switching among Cantonese, English and Putonghua
Ka Long Roy Chan
경희대학교 언어정보연구소 / 언어연구 제35권 제1호 / 2018 / 75-95 (21 pages)
인문학>언어학 / KDC : 언어 > 언어 / KCI : 인문학 > 언어학
초록보기
This study reports on the result of ethno-linguistic research which aims to investigate whether an emerging form of code-switching among three languages, namely Cantonese, English and Putonghua, exists in Hong Kong. This study follows the research method of Sung (2010) which the author recorded his experiences as a ‘purist’ in Hong Kong: during a three-day experiment - the author employed only Cantonese, English and Putonghua, respectively. Field notes and reflective diaries were used to record the incidents of communication breakdowns resulted from the use of pure-code instead of mixed codes. Because of the recent change in language policy in which Putonghua has placed more important roles in language teaching in Hong Kong, Putonghua has been added into the current study intentionally because Sung (2010) only included Cantonese and English, which largely ignored the fact the Putonghua has become an important part in the linguistic environment of Hong Kong. The difficulties of using only pure-Cantonese, pure-English and pure-Putonghua in Hong Kong will be discussed. Also, I suggest that there exists the code-switching among Cantonese, English and Putonghua in Hong Kong because of the increasing contact with China and the new policy of using Putonghua as the Medium of Instruction (PMI) in some primary schools. Moreover, the present study suggests that the use of pure-code in these languages may hinder communication in Hong Kong. Further studies are needed on code-switching among the three languages within the younger generation of Hongkongers, especially those who attend PMI schools.
The scope ambiguity in the Korean Left-Node Raising construction
The scope ambiguity in the Korean Left-Node Raising construction
Jungmee Lee
경희대학교 언어정보연구소 / 언어연구 제35권 제1호 / 2018 / 97-116 (20 pages)
인문학>언어학 / KDC : 언어 > 언어 / KCI : 인문학 > 언어학
초록보기
This paper examines the ambiguity that arises from the Left-Node Raising (LNR) construction in Korean. I argue that the ambiguity is induced by the scopal relation between a coordinate phrase and a quantifier-type pivot: the quantificational meaning of a pivot can scope over the coordinate phrase, or it can take a narrow scope within each conjunct. I show that previous proposals such as the ATB-scrambling analysis (Nakao 2010) and the multi-dominance analysis (Chung 2010) have not addressed the ambiguity or have some empirical problems. I develop a compositional analysis of the scopal ambiguity within the framework of Combinatory Categorial Grammar (e.g. Steedman 1996; Steedman 2000; Baldridge 2002; Steedman and Baldridge 2011; Steedman 2012), and propose that it can be extended to the English and Korean RNR sentences with a quantificational pivot.
Multimodality and cognitive mechanisms: A cognitive-semantics analysis of political cartoons
Multimodality and cognitive mechanisms: A cognitive-semantics analysis of political cartoons
Iksoo Kwon;Jung Hwi Roh
경희대학교 언어정보연구소 / 언어연구 제35권 제1호 / 2018 / 117-143 (27 pages)
인문학>언어학 / KDC : 언어 > 언어 / KCI : 인문학 > 언어학
초록보기
This paper aims to explore multimodality within a framework of cognitive semantics by conducting a case study of political cartoons with special focus on the optimal manifestations of conceptual metaphors (Lakoff and Johnson 1999) and blends (Fauconnier 1997) in them. It looks into the cartoons which have been published from January to August in 2017 to illustrate escalating tensions over the issue of developing nuclear weapons in North Korea between North Korea and the United States after Donald Trump was elected president of the United States. Total 26 relevant cartoons were collected from multiple public webpages, which use the original hairstyles of the political figures to satirize their political actions or to show conflicts and their unpleasant emotions. This study provides a qualitative analysis of five selected cartoons that represent the sub-types to clarify how hair constitutes the overall construal of the cartoon within a framework of cognitive semantics. It supports the claim that cognitive mechanisms such as conceptual metaphor and blending are not confined to verbal artefacts, but they are pervasive in multimodal manifestations since multimodal data as well as linguistic data are outcomes of human cognition
Compensation for phonological assimilation: Obstruent nasalization and coronal place assimilation
Compensation for phonological assimilation: Obstruent nasalization and coronal place assimilation
Eunkyung Sung
경희대학교 언어정보연구소 / 언어연구 제35권 제1호 / 2018 / 145-178 (34 pages)
인문학>언어학 / KDC : 언어 > 언어 / KCI : 인문학 > 언어학
초록보기
This paper investigates whether native English, Korean, and Chinese listeners show language-specific compensation mechanisms for phonological assimilation processes. To this end, two different assimilation rules, obstruent nasalization and coronal place assimilation, were tested. Fourteen Korean listeners, eleven English listeners, and fourteen Chinese listeners listened to 540 items of Korean stimuli and 540 items of English stimuli prompted by the PsychoPy software. For each item, a target token was presented with one of three contexts (i.e. no change, unviable change, and viable change). The participants indicated whether a target token was the same as the first syllable or the first word in a compound word (e.g. “main”, “mai[m] body”). The results of detection rates showed that Korean listeners compensated for nasalization in a highly context-sensitive way, and their sensitivity to context was also revealed in place assimilation. The other two listener groups did not show sensitivity to context for either nasalization or place assimilation. Overall, the results of this study were supported by language-specific compensation mechanisms. Basic processing was controlled by language experience with assimilation rules. However, language-independent mechanism such as perceptual salience of segments was also at play. In addition, it seems that the status of a phonological rule in a native language and realization of segments in native speech also played an important role in compensation for assimilation. Lexical status of words did not seem to affect compensation patterns.
Spectral patterns of the American English diphthong /a/ as a function of coda voicing produced by native Korean speakers
Spectral patterns of the American English diphthong /a/ as a function of coda voicing produced by native Korean speakers
Eunjin Oh
경희대학교 언어정보연구소 / 언어연구 제35권 제1호 / 2018 / 179-201 (23 pages)
인문학>언어학 / KDC : 언어 > 언어 / KCI : 인문학 > 언어학
초록보기
This study aimed to investigate how native speakers of Korean who learned English as a second language realize spectral differences in the American English diphthong /a/ as a function of coda voicing. Ten Korean learners of English and eight native speakers of American English participated in a production experiment. The monosyllabic words “bite” (/bat/) and “bide” (/bad/) were read along with filler words in isolation and in a carrier sentence. The native group demonstrated significantly smaller F1 and larger F2 before /t/ than /d/ both in the nucleus /a/ and in the offglide // (Moreton 2004). The learner group did not show statistically significant spectral changes in the nucleus and the offglide. Also, the native group significantly reduced the temporal distance between the nucleus and the offglide, and showed spectral peripheralization in the offglide before /t/ than /d/ (Pycha and Dahan 2016). However, the learner group did not show native-like reduction of the temporal distance between the nucleus and the offglide and spectral peripheralization in the offglide. Although the non-native speakers in this study exhibited some durational changes as a function of coda voicing, they did not learn the fine phonetic details regarding the gestural timing and spectral patterns in the diphthong. A considerable degree of individual variation in the learner group and speaking context effects were also found. It was interpreted that the Hyperarticulation hypothesis (Thomas 2000; Moreton 2004) and the Gestural Timing hypothesis (Pycha and Dahan 2016) could provide indices modelling the non-native phenomena found in this study as not attaining native-like phonetic values and gradual approach to the values concerning the spectral and durational aspects in /a/ as a function of coda voicing.
Prosodic remedies of Korean talkers’ English L2 speech: Optimal pitch and speech rate
Prosodic remedies of Korean talkers’ English L2 speech: Optimal pitch and speech rate
Joo Kyeong Lee
경희대학교 언어정보연구소 / 언어연구 제35권 제1호 / 2018 / 203-232 (30 pages)
인문학>언어학 / KDC : 언어 > 언어 / KCI : 인문학 > 언어학
초록보기
The current study investigates native English listeners’ perceived foreign accent for pitch- and duration-manipulated speech of Korean EFL talkers with high and low proficiency. This work contents that low proficiency talkers’ L2 speech can be perceptually better accented when a single prosodic parameter such as pitch or speech rate is merely corrected. As nonnative talkers’ proficiency was divided into three categories, high, intermediate and low in the Accentedless Rating task, low talkers were categorically promoted to the intermediate when H* and L* were remedied more native-like and their L2 speech was synthesized to be faster. The corrected prosodic features seemed to be readily detected by native listeners because such corrections might be comparatively salient over the segmental features seriously deviant from native norms in their interlanguage. The results of the current experiment suggested actual numeric values of optimal pitch and speech rate for upgrading low talkers’ proficiency; H* should increase roughly by 30% to 45% higher than the ones that they usually produce in statements, and L* should deepen approximately by 20% to 40% lower than in their normal production of yes-no questions. Speech rate should be 1.2 to 2 times faster for low talkers to be judged as intermediate. On the other hand, Korean high proficiency talkers didn’t show a categorical decline to intermediate when pitch or speech rate was synthetically deteriorated. Due to their little accented L2 speech, phonological/phonetic features, which are very similar to those of native speakers, seemed to firmly tolerate the degrading portion of prosody. In addition, the actual numeric values of pitch and speech rate obtained in the results should be applied to the pedagogical environment and used as references to facilitate improving low talkers’ proficiency.
Effects of L2 experience on the production of Korean stop contrasts by Mandarin Chinese learners
Effects of L2 experience on the production of Korean stop contrasts by Mandarin Chinese learners
Eunhae Oh
경희대학교 언어정보연구소 / 언어연구 제35권 제1호 / 2018 / 233-251 (19 pages)
인문학>언어학 / KDC : 언어 > 언어 / KCI : 인문학 > 언어학
초록보기
Effects of L2 experience on the segmental and prosodic production of second language were investigated. Thirty two Chinese learners of Korean varying in the amount of experience (3 months vs. 2 years) were compared to sixteen age-matched native Korean speakers in their production of three-way contrastive stops (aspirated, lenis, tense). Korean four-syllable phrases (i.e., Accentual Phrase) beginning with each stop type in a word-initial position were elicited. VOT, F0, H1-H2 values of the segments as well as an Accentual phrase-initial boundary tones were analyzed and compared across groups. The results showed significant differences in F0 and H1-H2 as a result of experience, albeit F0 was not native-like in the experienced group’s production. The Accentual phrases-initial boundary tones, however, were produced with a native-like F0 pattern regardless of the amount of L2 experience. The native-like production of VOT and F0 in the tonal context in both L2 groups is likely to be the influence of L1, whereas the improved cues, H1-H2 and F0 in the segmental context, are the result of L2 experience.