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홈 > 인기논문

인문학

가장 많이 다운로드된 논문입니다.
1 생성문법연구 제15권 제3호
Focus Movement in Sluicing
박범식(Bum-Sik Park)
한국생성문법학회 / 생성문법연구 / 생성문법연구 제15권 제3호 생성문법연구 제15권 제3호 / 2005 / 375~383 (9pages)
인문학>언어학
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百濟 威德王代의 對外關係 - 對中關係를 중심으로 -
양기석(Yang Gi-seok)
한국고대학회 / 선사와 고대 / 선사와 고대 제19호 선사와 고대 제19호 / 2003 / 227~254 (28pages)
인문학>역사학
초록보기
During the first half year of stay of King Widuk's(威德王) regin, King Widuk attempted to stabilize the political and social structure of Baekje by commemorating King Sung(聖). Since the latter half of Widuk's regin, diplomatic relationships with eastern countries helped him establish his power and international status of Baekje. The Baekje Dynasty begun to develop relationships with Chen(陳), Qi(北齊), Northern Zhou(北周) and Sui(隋) under the King Widuk. The purpose of such efforts was to build alliance with neighboring countries. By the end of 6th century, the three kingdoms in ancient Korea remained at peace to some extent; however, competition for leadership was measured by the success of its diplomatic polices. Baekje's successful diplomatic relationship with Northern and Southern Dynasty. resulted in the official recognition of King Widuk by China on four occasions. Such recognition was also very helpful to eastablishing the legitimacy of the Baekje Dynasty, as well as its status amongst neighboring countries. In conclusion, the success of King Widuk can be attributed to the success of his diplomatic efforts. Furthermore, this stategy has helped to strengthen the royal authority of Baekje, since the battle of Kwansan fortress ended in defeat.
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한국어 어휘부 구조
강용순(Kang, Yongsoon)
한국음운론학회 / 음성 음운 형태론 연구 / 음성ㆍ음운ㆍ형태론 연구 제4집 음성ㆍ음운ㆍ형태론 연구 제4집 / 1998 / 55~67 (13pages)
인문학>언어학
초록보기
The purpose of this paper is to show that the lexicon structure in Korean does not support the core-periphery hypothesis proposed by Itô & Mester (1995). Rather, native Korean and loan words are differentiated by the ranking difference of Faithfulness constraints like MAX-IO, DEP-IO. Furthermore, Koreans are aware of the status of loan words because they permit the word structure ending [i] which is not found in Korean nouns. This paper also investigates the properties of native Korean, sino- Korean, loan words, and foreign words in the lexicon.
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음운교체의 불규칙성과 입력형의 설정: ‘ㄷ-불규칙용언’의 활용을 중심으로
이세창
한국음운론학회 / 음성 음운 형태론 연구 / 음성ㆍ음운ㆍ형태론 연구 제9집 제2호 음성ㆍ음운ㆍ형태론 연구 제9집 제2호 / 2003 / 186~202 (17pages)
인문학>언어학
초록보기
The purpose of this paper is to provide a principled explication with respect to the opaque alternations of the so-called ‘/t/-irregular stems’ that has eluded earlier formal approaches. Even though the alternations have long been argued that they are fossilized phenomena, I will show that they constitute a natural consequence of lexicon optimization on the part of language learners. The significance of the explanation developed here is that I propose a revised version of lexicon optimization principle which enables the language learner to adopt a single underlying form out of possible input candidates. I claim that when learners posit input forms, they abstract away some relevant phonological information from output forms, which is reminiscent of Kiparsky’s original idea of Alternation Condition.
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영어차용어의 모음삽입에 대한 통계적 관찰과 그 의의
이석재;최유경
한국음운론학회 / 음성 음운 형태론 연구 / 음성ㆍ음운ㆍ형태론 연구 제7집 제1호 음성ㆍ음운ㆍ형태론 연구 제7집 제1호 / 2001 / 153~176 (24pages)
인문학>언어학
초록보기
Rhee, Seok-Chae and Choi, Yoo-Kyung. 2001. A satistical observation of vowel epenthesis in English loanwords in Korean and its significance. Studies in Phonetics. Phonology and Morphology 7.1, 153-176. English loanwords data showing association between English coda stops and their realization in Korean with respect to vowel epenthesis were collected and classified upon the bases of: 1. 2, voice and place of the coda stop, 3. tenseness of the preceding vowel, 4. number of the syllables, and 5. the site in a word where a coda stop appears in relation to the sonority of the following sound. The data were then statistically analyzed to look for the precise interdependency between the five parameters and vowel epenthesis. As a result, an equation was obtained that predicts whether or not a vowel is inserted. About 90% of the data had the same predicted form as the observed form, which means that this study affords fairly reliable predictability to the vowel epenthesis phenomenon in English loanwords in Korean. (Yonsei University)
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Aspects of phonetics and phonology of Icelandic preaspiration
Chang-Kook Suh
한국음운론학회 / 음성 음운 형태론 연구 / 음성ㆍ음운ㆍ형태론 연구 제7집 제1호 음성ㆍ음운ㆍ형태론 연구 제7집 제1호 / 2001 / 63~83 (21pages)
인문학>언어학
초록보기
Suh, Chang-Kook. 2001. Aspects of phonetics and phonology of Icelandic preaspiration. Studies in Phonetics, Phonology and Morphology 7.1. 63-83. In this paper. I defend the claim that preaspirated consonants in Icelandic (i.e. Icelandic preaspiration) are the phonetic realization of an aspiratcd geminate. This implies that preaspiration is contingent on the length of consonants in stressed syllables. The phonology creates an aspirated geminate, and the phonetic component then interprets that aspirated geminate as something that sounds like preaspiration followed by a singleton consonant. For those purposes, we first look at phonetic aspects of preaspiration, and then show how we get aspirated geminates, phonologically. Accordingly, we need to show where the aspirated geminates come from (i.e. underlying and derived). These are accounted for through the interaction of the constraints in a predicted way. (Chonan University)
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진안 월계리 백제 와요의 축조 및 기와 제작기법 관찰
이상균(Lee Sang-kyun)
한국고대학회 / 선사와 고대 / 선사와 고대 제19호 선사와 고대 제19호 / 2003 / 387~409 (23pages)
인문학>역사학
초록보기
A roofing-tile-kiln site of Walgeri of Jinan, which is supposed to be built in the late of Baekje dynasty of the late 7th century, was found in submerged distinct of Young-Dam dam. Although such as exact demand-and-supply locations, divide manufacturing work types according to the kind of roofs and related facilities of kiln was not cleared, new aspect of building techniques and roofing-tile manufacturing technique of the late Baekje dynasty were understood. The semi-basement structured 1st kiln got an artificially raised ground level. The basement structured tunnel kilns were found in 2nd and 3rd kilns and a subsidiary chimney and a stared structure were found in 2nd kiln. Cut-mark of roofs, cut-mark of roofs by roof-cutting knives, and mark of connected dies for roof were found. These manufacturing characteristics are very helpful to understand and characterize other areas manufacturing techniques.
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영어 차용어 음절 말 폐쇄음의 파열 여부와 모음 삽입에 관한 실험적 연구
전은
한국음운론학회 / 음성 음운 형태론 연구 / 음성ㆍ음운ㆍ형태론 연구 제8집 제1호 음성ㆍ음운ㆍ형태론 연구 제8집 제1호 / 2002 / 117~134 (18pages)
인문학>언어학
초록보기
Jun, Eun. 2002. An Experimental study of the effect of release of English syllable final stops on vowel epenthesis in English loanwords. Studies in Phonetics, Phonology and Morphology 8.1. 117-134. A list of 85 nonce words was designed with 62 words presented in oral forms and 23 words in written forms to examine the relationship between English syllable final stops and vowel epenthesis in their Korean loanwords. The following factors were considered: release of stops, channel (i.e. written forms or oral forms), stress of the syllable, tenseness of the preceding vowels, type of the tense vowels, voice and place of the stops, and the total number of the syllables of the adopted words. Questionnaires were submitted to about 260 college students and the results were statistically analyzed. Although all the investigated factors turned out to be statistically significant, the percentage of vowel insertion in the released stops of oral forms and in the stops of the written forms was very high, compared to those of other factors. Considering that syllable final stops of the written forms are perceived as the released stops by Korean speakers, the release of English coda stops is one of the most important factors in vowel epenthesis in Korean loanwords. (Kunsan National University)
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구성원소 이론과 국어의 경음화 현상
이상직(Rhee Sang Jik)
한국음운론학회 / 음성 음운 형태론 연구 / 음성ㆍ음운ㆍ형태론 연구 제10집 제3호 음성ㆍ음운ㆍ형태론 연구 제10집 제3호 / 2004 / 523~542 (20pages)
인문학>언어학
초록보기
In native Korean, there are two contexts for tensification in verbal suffixation, viz. post-obstruent and post-nasal. Previous analyses accounted for these two tensification processes in a separate manner, i.e. the former was treated as articulatorily motivated and the latter as morphologically conditioned. This paper attempts to explain the two types of tensification in a unified way, in that these two processes are invoked to repair ill-formed coda-onset clusters. A lenis obstruent cannot govern a preceding lenis obstruent or nasal, so that this segment undergoes tensification to govern its preceding segment. This is due to the fact that lenis obstruents and nasals are equally ranked in a segmental governing hierarchy. To formally express the equal status of these consonants, this paper adopts the Element Theory, in which the segmental complexity of lenis obstruents is identical to that of nasals, i.e. each type consists of three elements.
10 생성문법연구 제15권 제4호
The Status of the Null Object in the VP Ellipsis Context
Eun-Ji Lee
한국생성문법학회 / 생성문법연구 / 생성문법연구 제15권 제4호 생성문법연구 제15권 제4호 / 2005 / 609~629 (21pages)
인문학>언어학
초록보기
The null object along with the null subject is traditionally assumed to be pro. Whitman (1988), Otani & Whitman (1991) and Huang (1991) oppose this traditional assumption on the null object and claim that the null object, particularly in the VP ellipsis context, is derived from VP deletion. On the other hand, Park (1994) and Hoji (1998) suggest an argument for the traditional pro hypothesis. In this paper, I stand on the former position, showing that the pro analysis does not have enough explanatory power in dealing with the null object in the VP ellipsis context, and suggesting the null subject and object asymmetries.
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百濟의 始祖 傳承과 出自
박찬규(Park Chan-kyu)
한국고대학회 / 선사와 고대 / 선사와 고대 제19호 선사와 고대 제19호 / 2003 / 37~50 (14pages)
인문학>역사학
초록보기
Baejge(百濟) was the nation that had opened in the northern Manchuria(滿洲). Afterward the nation was moved in southern land and developed in the middle area of Korean peninsula. In the founding process of this country the major powerful groups were Onjo(溫祚) group and Biryu(沸流) group. Beside the two groups, there was another group whose original ancestor was Gutae(仇台). This paper is purposed to make clear the origin of the Baejge founders lineage, that is to say Onjo, Biryu, Gutae, and make clear the location of Michuhol(彌鄒忽) and beginning place of Daebang(帶方). The beginning place of Onjo and Biryu was Jolbon(卒本) region. Nowadays most historical researchers presume that Jolbon region is present Huanren-xian(桓仁縣) region locating in Liaoning-sheng(遼寧省) of China. This region is the birthplace of Koguryo(高句麗). For reason of this, peoples presume Biryu and Onjo were originated from Koguryo lineage. But they were originated from Buyo(扶餘) lineage. Because they had not any relation with the foundation of Koguryo. The name of Biryu was produced in the dividing and moving process of Buyo tribue that placed and developed in the Biryu River area of Jolbon region. I think that Gutae is the same person with Onjo, and Daebang region is not named one fixed land but Baekje boundary in a broad sense. From this point, it is not reasonable opinions that beginning place of Daebang was located in ancient town of Yangju(楊洲), and Michuhol was located in that place.
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조선 전기 불자와 유자의 시공관-(연기설)緣起說과 (생생설)生生說의 (소원)疎遠과 (소통)疎通-
고영섭
한국동양철학회 / 동양철학 / 東洋哲學 제21집 東洋哲學 제21집 / 2004 / 1~34 (34pages)
인문학>철학
초록보기
이 논문의 목적은 조선 전기 불자와 유자의 시공관을 살펴 소통의 가능성 을 타진해 보는 것이다. 조선 전기의 대표적 불자였던 득통 기화와 설잠 기화는 연기설 에 근거하여 삼세와 우주의 관점에 서서 시공을 바라보고 있다. 대표적 유자였던 삼봉 정도전과 양촌 권근은 주역의 생생설에 입각하여 일세와 지구의 관점에 서서 시공을 바라보고 있다. 불자의 시공관은 업의 인과에 의해 현상계의 존재를 설명하는 연기설에서 확립되며, 유자의 시공관은 기의 취산에 의해 현상계의 존재를 설명하는 생생설에서 확보된다. 이 두 사유의 시공관의 차이는 1) 삼세와 우주에 근거한 불교와 일세와 천지에 근거한 유교로 변별되며, 2) 업의 인과의 주체를 자신으로 보는 불교와 기의 취산의 주체를 태극으로 보는 유교로 변별된다. 하지만 조선 전기 불자와 유자의 시공관은 소원하기만 한 것이 아니라 소통의 지평 이 있었다. 연기설에 근거한 삼세의 시간관과 우주적 공간관으로 하는 불교의 시공관과 사람과 만물이 끊임없이 낳고 나아서 다함이 없다는 생생설에 근거한 순환론적인 역사관과 지구 중심의 천지 모텔을 공간관으로 하는 유교의 시공관은 윤회와 인과와 보응의 측면에서 서로 소통의 통로를 확보하고 있다.
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환문총 벽화에 그려진 동심원문의 상징과 그 의의
정병모(Chong Pyong-Mo)
한국고대학회 / 선사와 고대 / 선사와 고대 제23호 선사와 고대 제23호 / 2005 / 71~95 (25pages)
인문학>역사학
초록보기
Decorative patterns, and especially lotus patterns, are themes uniquely associated with tomb murals of Goguryeo, that are rarely, if ever, encountered in other ancient tomb murals of China or Japan. Decorative patterns, not as spectacular as paintings depicting scenes of daily life or deities, have also received far less attention, in spite of the fact that they are one of the original aspects that set Goguryeo tomb murals apart from others. During the 5th century, decorative patterns were a popular mural theme, even if not nearly as popular as daily scenes, as evidenced by their use in the royal tomb attributed to King Dongmyeong. Of all decorative patterns found in Goguryeo tomb murals, those in Hwanmunchong are perhaps the most intriguing, for the following three reasons: first, these concentric designs represent lotus blossoms. Second, these patterns appear to have been placed on walls after erasing the murals that were originally present, containing scenes of everyday life. Third, lotus blossoms in concentric designs remain incomplete, only half-way executed. In this paper, I argue that the lotus blossoms in the concentric designs of Hwanmunchong are composite symbols, an amalgam between a Buddhist symbol and symbols of celestial bodies, and that they are embodiments of early visions of the lotus in Korean imagination. The concentric patterns covering the inner walls of Hwanmunchong are clearly meant to represent lotus blossoms. The symbolism of the lotus blossom in the Goguryeo Period was much more complex than in subsequent periods, when this flower is unambiguously linked with Buddhism. Having begotten a vast array of traditions, the lotus blossom is a very ancient motif, venerated not just in Buddhism, but also in several other religions. This is precisely in cause for some of the confusions in the interpretation of lotus designs appearing in the art of ancient Korea. To accurately determine the symbolic meaning of the lotus motif, one needs to turn to the surrounding historical context and comprehensively examine its relationship to other motifs. The fact that the lotus motifs in Hwanmunchong’s murals are not straightforward representations of blossoms makes uncovering the exact nature of their symbolism an even more challenging task. The appearance of lotus blossoms, seemingly executed half-way, most probably owes to the artist’s intention to achieve a balance between the symbolism of the concentric designs and that of lotus motifs. In other words, the artist wanted to combine a representation of heavenly bodies like the sun and the moon with the lotus, which would be an expression of hope for rebirth and metamorphosis, according to a Buddhist world view. This is an eloquent proof that lotus motifs in Goguryeo murals were not vehicles of the unique meaning it had in subsequent periods in Korean history. In Buddhist symbolism, this flower, often growing in marsh lands, is compared to truth blossoming amidst the mundane world. Meanwhile, lotus blossoms in ancient artworks, such as tomb murals from the Goguryeo period, are symbols of a dual origin; inherited from Taoist beliefs predating the arrival of Buddhism, on the one hand, and, on the other, as redefined by Buddhism. Hence, the concentric lotus motifs found in the murals of Hwanmunchong may be regarded as an early prototype of a new decorative pattern for murals, emerging after the introduction of Buddhism in Goguryeo. A return of decorative patterns at a time where scenes of everyday life prevailed in mural paintings cannot be simply explained as a shift in aesthetic sensibility, but indicates a new perspective on life after death. What motivated the action of erasing the original murals, depicting life, replacing them with decorative patterns must have been something as compelling as a hope for a rebirth in the Buddhist paradise. In other words, life after death mattered infinitely more than life on earth. The new popularity of decorative patt
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국어 음운 현상과 관련된 제약들의 기능 부담량에 대한 연구
이상억
한국음운론학회 / 음성 음운 형태론 연구 / 음성ㆍ음운ㆍ형태론 연구 제7집 제1호 음성ㆍ음운ㆍ형태론 연구 제7집 제1호 / 2001 / 125~152 (28pages)
인문학>언어학
초록보기
Lee, Sang-Oak. 2001. On the functional load of phonetic and phonological constraints in three-dimensional Korean linguistics. Studies in Phonetics, Phonology and Morphology 7.1. 125-152. This paper investigates the frequency of phonetic/phonological constraints in well-transcribed Korean data and established a rank of functional load among those constraints. The results obtained in the pursuit turn out in the following way: the phonetic rules/constraints are ranked in the higher level of frequency and, in particular, the sum of two highest ranking items is nearly 51 %/53%. The constraint 'Syllable Adjustment' (14.6%) is much more frequent than the rule of 'Vowel Lengthening'. Among the four different types of palatalization, n-, l-, and spalatalization ranked high. Many other points can be observed from the result. This study is able to support the economically optimal design of speech/synthesis system by putting the highly ranked rules in the mainstream of processing while leaving minor rules in the negligible periphery. Again we may design the optimal model of introducing rules/constraints in our language teaching or acquisition.(Seoul National University)
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한국어 굴절접미사 연구
김형엽
한국음운론학회 / 음성 음운 형태론 연구 / 음성ㆍ음운ㆍ형태론 연구 제3집 음성ㆍ음운ㆍ형태론 연구 제3집 / 1997 / 77~97 (21pages)
인문학>언어학
초록보기
Kim, Hyoung-youb. 1997. A Study on Inflection in Korean. Studies in Phonetics, Phonology and Morphology 3, 77-97. This paper is to show that inflection in Korean should be reconsidered to account for the redundant distribution of a nominative honorific suffix and a nominative case marker in the same word. According to the analysis based on morphosyntax the combination of these suffixes in the same word doesn't have to occur in any case. However, as Sells (1995) has shown the two suffixes are allowed to be combined without causing any grammatical problems in Korean. In this paper I will show that these suffixes are not included in the same category in order to support the appearance of these suffixes in the same word. Based on Booij (1995) and MarIe (1995) the honorific suffixes such as '-kkeyse, -kkey' will be classified as inherent inflection, while other suffixes such as case markers and topic markers will be classified as contextual inflection. Thus, the combination of an honorific suffix and a case marker would cause no problems because they are included in different categories, which possess different morphological functions. (Korea University at Seochang Campus)
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高句麗 八角形建物址에 대한 연구
이강근(Lee Kang-Geun)
한국고대학회 / 선사와 고대 / 선사와 고대 제23호 선사와 고대 제23호 / 2005 / 5~35 (31pages)
인문학>역사학
초록보기
The pcurpose of this writing is to set the octagonal buildings, one of the representative building type of Goguryeo architecture, in historic sequence as we have the news of discovery of the octagonal building sites within the palace sites that is newly discovered from the excavation of China on the Hwando Mountain Fortress of Goguryo (currently, Jilin Province). By comprehensive search of archaeological and architectural writings in North Korean academic sector with the focus on the octagonal shape of buildings, I have attempted to set the standard needed for understanding of the functions and characteristic of the octagonal buildings. To this point of time, the octagonal buildings have taken special position within the architectural history of Korea as well as the architectural history of Goguryeo. Under the Cheongam-ri site, Sango-ri site and Wono-ri site (located in Pyeongyang) surveyed under the Japanese colonial time, the Garam (Buddhist temple) site plan with octagonal wooden pagoda site in focus was confirmed. After the liberation in 1945, the Garam site plan was discovered in the Jeongreungsa Temple site in Pyeongyang and Toseong-ri temple site in Whanghae-do Province of North Korea that the octagonal wooden pagoda sites have taken as the representative architectural form for Goguryeo. Thereafter, the octagonal buildings have become the unique and independent work of Goguryeo, and even when the Buddhist temples, so-called three-main hall composition, were dispersed to neighboring countries, it could not display the octagonal shape. Octagonal stylobate, octagonal column, octagonal ceiling and other architectural elements with octagonal shape are emerged only in the relics of Goguryeo that such a discourse is expected to continue for some time. The assertions that the octagonal stone lamp or octagonal stone well of Balhae and octagonal stone pagoda in Goryeo were inherited from Goguryeo were based on the above discourse. However, under the excavation survey of the Yeongmyosa Temple site (1978 and 1981) in Gyeongju had a pair of octagonal wooden pagoda discovered. And in Najeong excavation site, a place with the myth of foundation of Silla Kingdom, the large octagonal building site that attracted significant interests from the domestic academic sector was discovered in 2002. Therefore, as the method of spatial composition or scale of octagonal building sites discovered in Najeong site in Gyeongju is analysed, the ensuing studies are planned to compare the octagonal building sites of Goguryeo with that of Silla. Furthermore, a comparative study on the octagonal pagoda of China or octagonal shrine building of Japan is made to shed the light on the status of octagonal buildings in East Asia in the aspects of function and structure.
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아동의 음 산출에 관여하는 제약의 유형과 위계 : 자음 대치와 탈락을 중심으로
김태경(Kim Tae-Kyung)
한국음운론학회 / 음성 음운 형태론 연구 / 음성ㆍ음운ㆍ형태론 연구 제11집 제2호 음성ㆍ음운ㆍ형태론 연구 제11집 제2호 / 2005 / 275~293 (19pages)
인문학>언어학
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This paper investigates children's production errors involving consonant substitute and deletion in the acquisition of Korean. The data were longitudinally collected from 4 children, 2-year-old raised in a monolingual standard Korean environment. Most of the previous analyses accounted for the consonants deletion by the high ranked No-Coda constraint in child language. In this paper, however, it is shown that certain consonants deletion and substitute are triggered by Agree(pl) constraint which demands consonant clusters agree in place of articulation. Agree(pl) along with other universal constraints and their ranking can uniformly explain seemingly different phonological modifications. This indicates that Agree(pl), but not No-Coda, is a dominant markedness constraint in the initial stages of grammar. Each child will differ from others in its ranking of relevant faithfulness constraints, as the children's preferred methods of satisfying Agree(pl) are not identical.
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음성합성의 운율처리를 위한 악센트 연구
구희산
한국음운론학회 / 음성 음운 형태론 연구 / 음성ㆍ음운ㆍ형태론 연구 제1집 음성ㆍ음운ㆍ형태론 연구 제1집 / 1993 / 21~34 (14pages)
인문학>언어학
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아무르강 하류의 금속기시대 꼴촘-2 유적의 조사와 금속기시대의 출현문제
강인욱;김재윤;I.Ya.Schevkomud
한국고대학회 / 선사와 고대 / 선사와 고대 제20호 선사와 고대 제20호 / 2004 / 97~135 (39pages)
인문학>역사학
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漢城期 百濟 都城의 問題 - 風納土城과 夢村土城의 築造 時期 比定을 중심으로 -
박순발(Park Soon-bal)
한국고대학회 / 선사와 고대 / 선사와 고대 제19호 선사와 고대 제19호 / 2003 / 67~84 (18pages)
인문학>역사학
초록보기
The results of the my review on the recently raised retroactive standpoint which the construction time of early Baekje capital citadel i.e. Pungnap earthen wall has to be 2nd century A.D. are as followings. The stamped surface deep bowl which has been unearthed on the paleosurface beneath of Pungnap earthen wall is to be not made untill first half of 3rd century A.D. This point of time is sure the upper limit bound of construction of that wall. My conclusion as such is well supported by the cross dating of those pottery with accompanied chinese origin materials e.g. bronze mirror and imported ceramics pottery. And my upgraded view on the pottery chronology of those time period is summed up as figure 4. On the other hand, the time of construction of Mongchon earthen wall, which above mentioned retroactivists have assummed to be later than Pungnap earthen wall, is surely late second half of 3rd century A.D. in the light of chinese 'Sizin(西晉 : 265-316 A.D.)' potsherd unearthed in the layer deposited over inner surface of wall. These archaeological evidences combined with historical records says that firstly made Mongchon earthen wall was to be called 'southern wall(南城)' or 'king's castle(王城)', and lately made Pungnap earthen wall be called 'northen wall(北城)' or 'big wall(大城)'.